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ain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 24.8% permanent crops: 4.47% other: 70.73% (2005)

Irrigated land: 13,330 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment – current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water

Environment – international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography – note: there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 2005 est.)

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Legal system: English common law and statutory law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Deborah BARNES-JONES (since 10 May 2004) head of government: Chief Minister Lowell LEWIS (since 2 June 2006) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats, 9 popularly elected; members serve five-year terms) note: expanded in 2001 from 7 to 9 elected members with attorney general and financial secretary sitting as ex-officio members elections: last held 31 May 2006 (next to be held by 2011) election results: percent of vote by party – MCAP 36.1%, NPLM 29.4%, MDP 24.4%, independents 10.1%; seats by party – MCAP 4, NPLM 3, MDP 1, independents 1 note: in 2001, the Elections Commission instituted a single constituency/voter-at-large system whereby all eligible voters cast ballots for all nine seats of the Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)

Political parties and leaders: Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People’s Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU

Dipl

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Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3% highest 10%: 28.3% (1998 est.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index: 35.1 (2003)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed): 25.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget: revenues: $99.16 billion expenditures: $106.7 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt: 104.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture – products: wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products

Indu

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o easy task, my sister, to describe in a few lines the holiness, the humility, and the self-denial which our departed brother exhibited to us, and of which our whole collected brotherhood alike bear witness. Never have I beheld a life and deportment so thoroughly submissive. I placed him in an elevated rank in the community, but he appeared the lowest of all by the simplicity of his dress and his abstinence from all the enjoyments of the senses. I speak not of luxury, for that was a stranger to him; he refused everything but what was indispensable for the sustenance of life. He read continually, prayed often, and never spoke except when literary conversation or holy discussion compelled him to break silence. His mind and tongue seemed concentrated on philosophical and divine instructions. Simple, straightforward, reflecting on eternal judgments, shunning all evil, he consecrated the closing hours of an illustrious life. And when a mortal sickness seized him, with what fervent piety, what ardent inspiration did he make his last confession of his sins; with what fervor did he receive the promise of eternal life; with what confidence did he recommend his body and soul to the tender mercies of the Saviour!”

Such was the death of Abélard, as attested by the most venerated man of that generation. And when we bear in mind the friendship and respect of such a man as Peter, and the exalted love of such a woman as Héloïse, it is surely not strange that posterity, and the French nation especially, should embalm his memory in their traditions.

Héloïse survived him twenty years,–a priestess of God, a mourner at the tomb of Abélard. And when in the solitude of the Paraclete she felt the approach of the death she had so long invoked, she directed the sisterhood to place her body beside that of her husband in the same leaden coffin. And there, in the silent aisles of that abbey-church, it remained for five hundred years, until it was removed by Lucien Bonaparte to the Museum of French Monuments in Paris, but again transferred, a few years after, to the cemetery of Père la Chaise. The enthusiasm of the French erected over the remains a beautiful monument; and “there still may be seen, day by day, the statues of the immortal lovers, decked with flowers and coronets, perpetually renewed with invisible hands,–the silent tribute of the heart of that consecrated sentiment which survives all change. Thus do those votive offerings mysteriously convey admiration for the constancy and sympathy with the posthumous union of two hearts who transposed conjugal tenderness from the senses to the soul, who spiritualized the most ardent of human passions, and changed love itself into a holocaust, a martyrdom, and a holy sacrifice.”

AUTHORITIES.

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as no sooner ordained priest and consecrated as archbishop than he changed his habits. He became as austere as Lanfranc. He laid aside his former ostentation. He clothed himself in sackcloth; he mortified his body with fasts and laceration; he associated only with the pious and the learned; he frequented the cloisters and places of meditation; he received into his palace the needy and the miserable; he washed the feet of thirteen beggars every day; he conformed to the standard of piety in his age; he called forth the admiration of his attendants by his devotion to clerical duties. “He was,” says James Stephen, “a second Moses entering the tabernacle at the accepted time for the contemplation of his God, and going out from it in order to perform some work of piety to his neighbor. He was like one of God’s angels on the ladder, whose top reached the heavens, now descending to lighten the wants of men, now ascending to behold the divine majesty and the splendor of the Heavenly One. His prime councillor was reason, which ruled his passions as a mistress guides her servants. Under her guidance he was conducted to virtue, which, wrapped up in itself, and embracing everything within itself, never looks forward for anything additional.”

This is the testimony of his biographer, and has not been explained away or denied, although it is probably true that Becket did not purge the corruptions of the Church, or punish the disorders and vices of the clergy, as Hildebrand did. But I only speak of his private character. I admit that he was no reformer. He was simply the high-churchman aiming to secure the ascendency of the spiritual power. Becket is not immortal for his reforms, or his theological attainments, but for his intrepidity, his courage, his devotion to his cause,–a hero, and not a man of progress; a man who fought a fight. It should be the aim of an historian to show for what he was distinguished; to describe his warfare, not to abuse him because he was not a philosopher and reformer. He lived in the twelfth century.

One of the first things which opened the eyes of the King was the resignation of the Chancellor. The King doubtless made him primate of the English hierarchy in order that he might combine both offices. But they were incompatible, unless Becket was willing to be the unscrupulous tool of the King in everything. Of course Henry could not long remain the friend of the man who he thought had duped him. Before a year had passed, his friendship was turned to secret but bitter enmity. Nor was it long before an event occurred,–a small matter,–which brought the King and the Prelate into open collision.

The matter was this: A young nobleman, who held a clerical office, committed a murder. As an ecclesiastic, he was brought before the court of the Bishop of Lincoln, and was sentenced to pay a small fine. But public justice was not satisfied, and the sheriff summoned the canon, who refused to plead before him. The matter was referred to the King, who insisted that the murderer should be tried in the civil court,–that a sacred profession should not screen a man who had committed a crime against society. While the King had, as we think, justice on his side, yet in this matter he interfered with the jurisdiction of the spiritual courts, which had been in force since Constantine. Theodosius and Justinian had confirmed the privilege of the Church, on the ground that the irregularities of a body of men devoted to the offices of religion should be veiled from the common eye; so that ecclesiastics were sometimes protected when they should be punished. But if the ecclesiastical courts had abuses, they were generally presided over by good and wise men,–more learned than the officers of the civil courts, and very popular in the Middle Ages; and justice in them was generally administered. So much were they valued in a dark age, when the clergy were the most learned men of their times, that much business came gradually to be transacted in them which previously had been settled in the civil courts,–as tithes, testaments, breaches of contract, perjuries, and questions pertaining to marriage. But Henry did not like these courts, and was determined to weaken their jurisdiction, and transfer their power to his own courts, in order to strengthen the royal authority. Enlightened jurists and historians in our times here sympathize with Henry. High-Church ecclesiastics defend the jurisdiction of the spiritual courts, since they upheld the power of the Church, so useful in the Middle Ages. The King began the attack where the spiritual courts were weakest,–protection afforded to clergymen accused of crime. So he assembled a council of bishop

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Then began to gather the storms which were to wreck his fortunes. The nation now was clamorous for reform; and Coke, the enemy of Bacon, who was then the leader of the Reform party in the House of Commons, stimulated the movement. The House began its scrutiny with the administration of justice; and Bacon could not stand before it, for as the highest judge in England he was accused of taking bribes before rendering decisions, and of many cases of corruption so glaring that no defence was undertaken; and the House of Lords had no alternative but to sentence him to the Tower and fine him, to degrade him from his office, and banish him from the precincts of the court,–a fall so great, and the impression of it on the civilized world so tremendous, that the case of a judge accepting bribes has rarely since been known.

Bacon was imprisoned but a few days, his ruinous fine of L40,000 was remitted, and he was even soon after received at court; but he never again held office. He was hopelessly disgraced; he was a ruined man; and he bitterly felt the humiliation, and acknowledged the justice of his punishment. He had now no further object in life than to pursue his studies, and live comfortably in his retirement, and do what he could for future ages.

But before we consider his immortal legacy to the world, let us take one more view of the man, in order that we may do him justice, and remove some of the cruel charges against him as “the meanest of mankind.”

It must be borne in mind that, from the beginning of his career until his fall, only four or five serious charges have been made against him,–that he was extravagant in his mode of life; that he was a sycophant and office-seeker; that he deserted his patron Essex; that he tortured Peacham, a Puritan clergyman, when tried for high-treason; that he himself was guilty of corruption as a judge.

In regar

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tion to be considered, then, is whether Mohammedanism spread in consequence of its truths or in consequence of its errors.

In order to appreciate the influence of the Arabian prophet, we are first led into the inquiry whether his religion was really an improvement on the old systems which previously prevailed in Arabia. If it was, he must be regarded as a benefactor and reformer, even if we admit the glaring evils of his system, when measured by the purer religion of the Cross. And it then simply becomes a question whether it is better to have a prevalent corrupted system of religion containing many important truths, or a system of downright paganism with few truths at all.

In examining the religious systems of Arabia in the age preceding the advent of the Prophet, it would seem that the most prominent of them were the old doctrines of the Magians and Sabaeans, blended with a gross idolatry and a senseless polytheism. Whatever may have been the faith of the ancient Sabaean sages, who noted the aspects of the stars, and supposed they were inhabited by angels placed there by Almighty power to supervise and govern the universe, yet history seems to record that this ancient faith was practically subverted, and that the stars, where were supposed to dwell deities to whom prayers were made, became themselves objects of worship, and even graven images were made in honor of them. Among the Arabs each tribe worshipped a particular star, and set up its particular idol, so that a degrading polytheism was the religion of the land. The object of greatest veneration was the celebrated Black Stone, at Mecca, fabled to have fallen from heaven at the same time with Adam. Over this stone was built the Kaabah, a small oblong stone building, around which has been since built the great mosque. It was ornamented with three hundred and sixty idols. The guardianship of this pagan temple was intrusted to the most ancient and honorable families of Mecca, and to it resorted innumerable pilgrims bringing precious offerings. It was like the shrine of Delphi, as a source of profit to its fortunate guardians.

Thus before Mohammed appeared polytheism was the prevalent religion of Arabia,–a degradation even from the ancient Sabaean faith. It is true there were also other religions. There were many Jews at Medina; and there was also a corrupted form of Christianity in many places, split up into hostile and wrangling sects, with but little of the spirit of the divine Founder, with innumerable errors and superstitions, so that in no part of the world was Christianity so feeble a light. But the great body of the people were pagans. A marked reform was imperatively needed to restore the belief in the unity of God and set up a higher standard of morality.

It is cl

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lculation,–thirteen million pounds Troy of gold, and one hundred and twenty-seven million pounds of silver,–an amount not easy to estimate. But the plates of gold which overlaid the building, and the cherubim or symbolical winged figures, the precious woods, the rich hangings and curtains of crimson and purple, the brazen altars, the lamps, the sacred vessels of solid gold and silver, the elaborate carvings and castings, the rare gems,–these all together must have required a greater expenditure than is seen in the most famous temples of Greece or Asia Minor, whose value and beauty chiefly consisted in their exquisite proportions and their marble pillars and figures of men or animals. But no representation of man, no statue to the Deity, was seen in the Temple of Solomon; no idol or sacred animal profaned it. There was no symbol to indicate even the presence of Jehovah, whose dwelling-place was in the heavens, and whom the heaven of heavens could not contain. There were rites and sacrifices, but these were offered to an unseen divinity, whose presence was everywhere, and who alone reigned as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, forever and forever. The Temple, however, with its courts and porticos, its vast foundations of stones squared in distant quarries, and the immense treasures everywhere displayed, impressed both the senses and the imagination of a people never distinguished for art or science. And not only so, but Fergusson says: “The whole Mohammedan world look to it as the foundation of all architectural knowledge, and the Jews still recall its glories, and sigh over their loss with a constant tenacity unmatched by that of any other people to any other building of the ancient world.” Whether or not we are able to explain the architecture of the Temple, or are in error respecting its size, or the amount of gold and silver expended, or the number of men employed, we know that it was the pride and glory of that age, and was large enough, with its enclosures, to contain a representation of five millions of people, the heads of all the families and tribes of the nation, such as were collected together at its dedication.

As the great event of David’s reign was the removal of the Ark to Jerusalem, so the culminating glory of Solomon was the dedication of the Temple he had built to the worship of Jehovah. The ceremony equalled in brilliancy the glories of a Roman triumph, and infinitely surpassed them in popular enthusiasm. The whole population of the kingdom,–some four or five millions,–or their picked representatives, came to Jerusalem to witness or to take part in it. “And as the long array of dignitaries, with thousands of musicians clothed in white, and the monarch himself arrayed in pontifical robes, and the royal household in embroidered mantles, and the guards with their golden shields, and the priests bearing the sacred but tattered tabernacle, with the ark and the cherubim, and the altar of sacrifice, and the golden candlesticks and table of shew bread, and the brazen serpent of the wilderness and the venerated tables of stone on which were engraved by the hand of God himself the ten commandments,”–as this splendid procession swept along the road, strewed with flowers and fragrant with incense, how must the hearts of the people have been lifted up! Then the royal pontiff arose from the brazen scaffold on which he had seated himself, and amid clouds of incense and the smoke of burning sacrifice offered unto God the tribute of national praise, and implored His divine protection. And then, rising from his knees, with hands outstretched to heaven, he blessed the congregation, saying with a loud voice, “Let the Lord our God be with us as he was with our fathers, so that all the earth may know that Jehovah is God and that there is none else!”

Then followed the sacrifices for this grand occasion,–twenty thousand oxen and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep and goats were offered up on successive days. Only a portion of these animals was actually consumed on the altar by the officiating priests: the greater part furnished meat for the assembled multitude. The Festival of the Dedication lasted a week, and this was succeeded by the Feast of the Tabernacles; and from that time the Temple became the pride and glory of the nation. To see it periodically and worship in its courts became the intensest desire of every Hebrew. Three times a year some great festival was held, attended by a vast concourse of the people. The command was that every male Israelite should “appear before the Lord” and make his offering; but this of course had its necessary exceptions, as multitudes of women and children could not go, and had to be cared for at home. We cannot easily understand how on any other supposition they were all accommodated, spacious as were the various courts of the Temple; and we conclude that only a large representation of the tribes and families took place, for how could four or five millions of people assemble together at any festival?

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f mission: Ambassador Kevin J. McGUIRE embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek telephone: [264] (61) 221601 FAX: [264] (61) 229792

Flag description: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

Economy Namibia

Economy – overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa, the world’s fifth-largest producer of uranium, and the producer of large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. The mining sector employs only about 3% of the population while about half of the population depends on subsistence agriculture for its livelihood. Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages are a major problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides the great inequality of income distribution; nearly one-third of Namibians had annual incomes of less than $1400 in constant 1994 dollars, according to a 1993 study. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged to the South African rand. Privatization of several enterprises in coming years may stimulate long-run foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity – $13.15 billion (2002 est.)

GDP – real growth rate: 2.3% (2002 est.)

GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $6,900 (2002 est.)

GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 11% industry: 28% services: 61% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2001)

Labor force: 725,000 (2000)

Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 47%, industry 20%, services 33% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1998)

Budget: revenues: $883 million expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998)

Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity – production: 26.95 million kWh (2001)

Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 0% hydro: 0% other: 0% nuclear: 0%

Electricity – consumption: 603.1 million kWh (2001)

Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity – imports: 578 million kWh; note – electricity supplied by South Africa (2001)

Oil – production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil – consumption: 13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil – exports: NA (2001)

Oil – imports: NA (2001)

Oil – proved reserves: 0 bbl (37257)

Natural gas – proved reserves: 31.15 billion cu m (37257)

Agriculture – products: millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish

Exports: $1.21 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Exports – commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins

Exports – partners: EU 79%, US 4% (2001)

Imports: $1.38 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)

Imports – commodities: foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports – partners: US 50%, EU 31% (2001)

Debt – external: $517 million (2002 est.)

Economic aid – recipient: ODA $160 million (2000 est.)

Currency: Namibian dollar (NAD); South African rand (ZAR)

Currency code: NAD; ZAR

Exchange rates: Namibian dollars per US dollar – 10.54 (2002), 8.61 (2001), 6.94 (2000), 6.11 (1999), 5.53 (1998)

Fiscal year: 1 April – 31 March

Communications Namibia

Telephones – main lines in use: 110,200 (2000)

Telephones – mobile cellular: 82,000 (2000 est.)

Telephone system: general assessment: good system; about 6 telephones for each 100 persons domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital international: fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations – 4 Intelsat (2002)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 39, shortwave 4 (2001)

Radios: 232,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (plus about 20 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .na

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 45,000 (2002)

Transportation Namibia

Railways: total: 2,382 km narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)

Highways: total: 66,467 km paved: 9,172 km unpaved: 57,285 km (2000)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Luderitz, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)

Airports: 135 (2002)

Airports – with paved runways: total: 21 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2002)

Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 114 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 22 914 to 1,523 m: 71 under 914 m: 19 (2002)

Military Namibia

Military branches: National Defense Force (Army, including Air Wing), Police

Military manpower – availability: males age 15-49: 459,474 (2003 est.)

Military manpower – fit for military service: males age 15-49: 274,015 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures – dollar figure: $73.1 million (FY02)

Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY02)

Transnational Issues Namibia

Disputes – international: commission established with Botswana to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; Botswana residents protest Namibia’s planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls; managed dispute with South Africa over the location of the boundary in the Orange River; dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundaries converge; Angolan rebels and refugees still reside in Namibia

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

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@Nauru

Introduction Nauru

Background: Nauru’s phosphate deposits began to be mined early in the 20th century by a German-British consortium; the island was occupied by Australian forces in World War I. Nauru achieved independence in 1968 and joined the UN in 1999. Nauru is the world’s smallest independent republic.

Geography Nauru

Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates: 0 32 S, 166 55 E

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 21 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 21 sq km

Area – comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location along plateau rim 61 m

Natural resources: phosphates, fish

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment – current issues: limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years – mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium – has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources

Environment – international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean – the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator

People Nauru

Population: 12,570 (July 2003 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.9% (male 2,517; female 2,368) 15-64 years: 59.3% (male 3,681; female 3,779) 65 years and over: 1.8% (male 116; female 109) (2003 est.)

Median age: total: 19.6 years male: 19.3 years female: 20 years (2002)

Population growth rate: 1.9% (2003 est.)

Birth rate: 26.09 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Death rate: 7.08 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 10.33 deaths/1,000 live births female: 7.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 13 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.95 years male: 58.41 years female: 65.66 years (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS – deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Nauruan(s) adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese 8%, European 8%

Religions: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Languages: Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes

Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Nauru

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Nauru conventional short form: Nauru former: Pleasant Island

Government type: republic

Capital: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: acts of the Nauru Parliament and British common law

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Rene HARRIS (since 8 August 2003) note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government elections: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 29 May 2003 (next to be held NA 2006) note: Ludwig SCOTTY was removed from the presidency in a no-confidence vote 8 August 2003; Rene HARRIS became president election results: Ludwig SCOTTY elected president 29 May 2003; Ludwig SCOTTY 10 parliamentary votes, Kinza CLODUMAR 7 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament head of government: President Rene HARRIS (since 8 August 2003) note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms) elections: last held 3 May 2003 (next to be held not later than May 2006) election results: percent of vote – NA%; seats – Nauru First Party 3, independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: loose multiparty system; Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal) [leader NA]; Naoero Amo (Nauru First) Party [leader NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, ICAO, ICCt, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US: Nauru does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a UN office at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, New York 10017; telephone: (212) 937-0074 consulate(s): Hagatna (Guam)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the star indicates the country’s location in relation to the Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru

Economy Nauru

Economy – overview: Revenues of this tiny island have come from exports of phosphates, but reserves are expected to be exhausted within a few years. Phosphate production has declined since 1989, as demand has fallen in traditional markets and as the marginal cost of extracting the remaining phosphate increases, making it less internationally competitive. While phosphates have given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World, few other resources exist with most necessities being imported, including fresh water from Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru’s phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income have been invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru’s economic future. The government has been borrowing heavily from the trusts to finance fiscal deficits. To cut costs the government has called for a freeze on wages, a reduction of over-staffed public service departments, privatization of numerous government agencies, and closure of some overseas consulates. In recent years Nauru has encouraged the registration of offshore banks and corporations. Tens of billions of dollars have been channeled through their accounts. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist, with estimates of Nauru’s GDP varying widely.

GDP: purchasing power parity – $60 million (2001 est.)

GDP – real growth rate: NA%

GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $5,000 (2001 est.)

GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -3.6% (1993)

Labor force – by occupation: employed in mining phosphates, public administration, education, and transportation

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $23.4 million expenditures: $64.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY 95/96)

Industries: phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity – production: 30 million kWh (2001)

Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0%

Electricity – consumption: 27.9 million kWh (2001)

Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2001)

Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2001)

Oil – production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil – consumption: 1,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)

Oil – exports: NA (2001)

Oil – imports: NA (2001)

Agriculture – products: coconuts

Exports: $27 million f.o.b. (1995)

Exports – commodities: phosphates

Exports – partners: India 46.1%, South Korea 18.3%, Australia 10.6%, New Zealand 7.8%, Netherlands 5.6% (2002)

Imports: $33 million c.i.f. (1995)

Imports – commodities: food, fuel, manufactures, building materials, machinery

Imports – partners: Australia 59.3%, US 10.1%, Ireland 7.6%, Malaysia 6% (2002)

Debt – external: $33.3 million

Economic aid – recipient: $2.25 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.)

Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)

Currency code: AUD

Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar – 1.2641 (2002) 1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998)

Fiscal year: 1 July – 30 June

Communications Nauru

Telephones – main lines in use: 2,000 (1996)

Telephones – mobile cellular: 450 (1994)

Telephone system: general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities domestic: NA international: satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 7,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 500 (1997)

Internet country code: .nr

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA

Transportation Nauru

Railways: total: 5 km note: gauge unknown; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island to processing facilities on the southwest coast (2001)

Highways: total: 30 km paved: 24 km unpaved: 6 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Nauru

Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)

Airports: 1 (2002)

Airports – with paved runways: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)

Military Nauru

Military branches: no regular military forces; Nauru Police Force

Military manpower – availability: males age 15-49: 3,190 (2003 est.)

Military manpower – fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,762 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures – dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures – percent of GDP: NA%

Military – note: Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues Nauru

Disputes – international: none

Illicit drugs: broad-based money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003

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@Navassa Island

Introduction Navassa Island

Background: This uninhabited island was claimed by the US in 1857 for its guano, and mining took place between 1865 and 1898. The lighthouse, built in 1917, was shut down in 1996 and administration of Navassa Island transferred from the Coast Guard to the Department of the Interior. A 1998 scientific expedition to the island described it as a unique preserve of Caribbean biodiversity; the following year it became a National Wildlife Refuge.

Geography Navassa Island

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, about one-fourth of the way from Haiti to Jamaica

Geographic coordinates: 18 25 N, 7