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, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; note – indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 91% male: 92.4% female: 89.6% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years male: 14 years female: 13 years (2006)

Education expenditures:

5.5% of GDP (2005)

Government Mexico

Country name:

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s grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago with strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

People Maldives


385,925 (July 2008 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 23.5% (male 46,174/female 44,396) 15-64 years: 72.7% (male 172,279/female 108,152) 65 years and over: 3.9% (male 7,510/female 7,414) (2008 est.)

Median age:

total: 25.1 years male: 26 years female: 23.7 years (2008 est.)

Population growth

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Ambassador Charles L. ENGLISH embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [387] (33) 445-700 FAX: [387] (33) 659-722 branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:

a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy – overview:

Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. The private sector is growing and foreign investment is slowly increasing, but government spending, at nearly 40% of adjusted GDP, remains unreasonably high. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-07 when GDP growth exceeded 5% per year. National-level statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 – is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementing privatization, however, has been slow, particularly in the Federation, although more successful in the Republika Srpska. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious macroeconomic problems. On 1 January 2006 a new value-added tax (VAT) went into effect. The VAT has been successful in capturing much of the gray market economy and has developed into a significant and predictable source of revenues for all layers of government. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007. The country receives substantial reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$27.7 billion note: Bosnia has a large informal sector that could also be as much as 50% of official GDP (2007 est.)

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ral gas – consumption: 27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves: 759.7 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance: $-5.486 billion (2006 est.)

Exports: $19.24 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports – commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

Exports – partners: US 24.8%, UAE 7.8%, Afghanistan 6.6%, UK 5.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005)

Imports: $26.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

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Introduction Nepal

Background: In 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. A Maoist insurgency, launched in 1996, gained traction and threatened to bring down the regime, especially after a negotiated cease-fire between the Maoists and government forces broke down in August 2003. In 2001, the crown prince massacred ten members of the royal family, including the king and queen, and then took his own life. In October 2002, the new king dismissed the prime minister and his cabinet for “incompetence” after they dissolved the parliament and were subsequently unable to hold elections because of the ongoing insurgency. While stopping short of reestablishing parliament, the king in June 2004 reinstated the most recently elected prime minister who formed a four-party coalition government. Citing dissatisfaction with the government’s lack of progress in addressing the Maoist insurgency and corruption, the king in February 2005 dissolved the government, declared a state of emergency, imprisoned party leaders, and assumed power. The king’s government subsequently released party leaders and officially ended the state of emergency in May 2005, but the monarch retained absolute power until April 2006. After nearly three weeks of mass protests organized by the seven-party opposition and the Maoists, the king allowed parliament to reconvene on 28 April 2006. In November 2006, the government and Maoists signed the Comprehensive Peace Accord to end the ten-year insurgency.

Geography Nepal

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E

Map references: Asia


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unications Iraq

Telephones – main lines in use: 1.547 million (2005)

Telephones – mobile cellular: 8.7 million (2006)

Telephone system: general assessment: the aftermath of the liberation of Iraq in 2003 severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; USAID repaired switching capabilities and constructed a mobile and satellite communication facility; landlines now exceed pre-war levels domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 have been completed, but sabotage remains a problem; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is widely available in major cities and centered on three regional GSM networks, improving country-wide connectivity. There are currently 8.7 million users of cellular services. international: country code – 964; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; despite a new satellite gateway, international calls outside of Baghdad are sometimes problematic

Radio broadcast stations: after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations on the air inside Iraq (2004)

Radios: 4.85 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 21 (2004)

Televisions: 1.75 million (1997)


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strial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity – production: NA kWh

Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: NA hydro: NA nuclear: NA other: NA

Electricity – consumption: NA kWh

Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2002)

Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2002)

Exports: $NA

Exports – commodities: tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables

Exports – partners: UK; note – regarded as internal trade (2004)

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- consumption: 238,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil – exports: 0 bbl/day (2006)

Oil – imports: 222,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil – proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas – production: 1.09 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – consumption: 8.29 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – exports: 7.2 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – imports: 7.2 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves: 97.98 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)