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passed gradually from contempt and degradation to the veneration of men, when her soul was elevated by the power which Paganism never knew. But Christianity in the hands of degenerate Romans and Gothic barbarians made many mistakes in its efforts to save so priceless a thing as a human soul. Among other things, it instituted monasteries and convents, both for men and women, in which they sought to escape the contaminating influences which had degraded them. If Paganism glorified the body, monasticism despised it. In the fierce protests against the peculiar sins which had marked Pagan life,–gluttony, wine-drinking, unchastity, ostentatious vanities, and turbulent mirth,–monasticism decreed abstinence, perpetual virginity, the humblest dress, the entire disuse of ornaments, silence, and meditation. These were supposed to disarm the demons who led into foul temptation. Moreover, monasticism encouraged whatever it thought would make the soul triumphant over the body, almost independent of it. Whatever would feed the soul, it said, should be sought, and whatever would pamper the body should be avoided.

As a natural consequence of all this, piety gradually came to seek its most congenial home in monastic retreats, and to take on a dreamy, visionary, and introspective mood. The “saints” saw visions of both angels and devils, and a superstitious age believed in their revelations. The angels appeared to comfort and sustain the soul in temptations and trials, and the devils came to pervert and torment it. Good judgment and severe criticism were lost to the Church; and, moreover, the gloomy theology of the Middle Ages, all based on the fears of endless physical torments,–for the wretched body was the source of all evil, and therefore must be punished,–gave sometimes a repulsive form to piety itself. Intellectually, that piety now excites our contempt, because it was so much mixed up with dreams and ecstasies and visions and hallucinations. It produces a moral aversion also, because it was austere, inhuman, and sometimes cruel. Both monks and nuns, when they conformed to the rules of their order, were sad, solitary, dreary-looking people, although their faces shone occasionally in the light of ecstatic visions of heaven and the angels.

But whatever mistakes monasticism made, however repulsive the religious life of the Middle Ages,–in fact, all its social life,–still it must be admitted that the aim of the time was high. Men and women were enslaved by superstitions, but they were not Pagan. Our own age is, in some respects, more Pagan than were the darkest times of mediaeval violence and priestly despotism, since we are reviving the very things against which Christianity protested as dangerous and false,–the pomps, the banquets, the ornaments, the arts of the old Pagan world.

Now, all this is preliminary to what I have to say of Saint Theresa. We cannot do justice to this remarkable woman without considering the sentiments of her day, and those circumstances that controlled her. We cannot properly estimate her piety–that for which she was made a saint in the Roman calendar–without being reminded of the different estimate which Paganism and Christianity placed upon the soul, and consequently the superior condition of women in our modern times. Nor must we treat lightly or sneeringly that institution which was certainly one of the steps by which women rose in the scale both of religious and social progress. For several ages nuns were the only charitable women, except queens and princesses, of whom we have record. But they were drawn to their calm retreats, not merely to serve God more effectually, nor merely to perform deeds of charity, but to study. As we have elsewhere said, the convents in those days were schools no less than asylums and hospitals, and were especially valued for female

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distinguishing glory of chivalry was devotion to the female sex. Respect for woman was born in the German forests before the Roman empire fell. It was the best trait of the Germanic barbarians; but under the institution of chivalry this natural respect was ripened into admiration and gallantry. “Love of God and the ladies” was enjoined as a single duty. The knight ever came to the rescue of a woman in danger or distress, provided she was a lady. Nothing is better attested than the chivalric devotion to woman in a feudal castle. The name of a mistress of the heart was never mentioned but in profound respect. Even pages were required to choose objects of devotion, to whom they were to be loyal unto death. Woman presided in the feudal castle, where she exercised a proper restraint. She bestowed the prize of valor at tournaments and tilts. To insult a lady was a lasting disgrace,–or to reveal her secrets. For the first time in history, woman became the equal partner of her husband. She was his companion often in the chase, gaily mounted on her steed. She always dined with him, and was the presiding genius of the castle. She was made regent of kingdoms, heir of crowns, and joint manager of great estates. She had the supreme management of her household, and was consulted in every matter of importance. What an insignificant position woman filled at Athens compared with that in the feudal castle! How different the estimate of woman among the Pagan poets from that held by the Provençal poets! What a contrast to Juvenal is Sordello! The lady of a baronial hall deemed it an insult to be addressed in the language of gallantry, except in that vague and poetic sense in which every knight selected some lady as the object of his dutiful devotion. She disdained the attentions of the most potent prince if his addresses were not honorable. Nor would she bestow her love on one of whom she was not proud. She would not marry a coward or a braggart, even if he were the owner of ten thousand acres. The knight was encouraged to pay his address to any lady if he was personally worthy of her love, for chivalry created a high estimate of individual merit. The feudal lady ignored all degrees of wealth within her own rank. She was as tender and compassionate as she was heroic. She was treated as a superior, rather than as an equal. There was a poetical admiration among the whole circle of knights. A knight without an object of devotion was as “a ship without a rudder, a horse without a bridle, a sword without a hilt, a sky without a star.” Even a Don Quixote must have his Dulcinea, as well as horse and armor and squire. Dante impersonates the spirit of the Middle Ages in his adoration of Beatrice. The ancient poets coupled the praises of women with the praises of wine. Woman, under the influence of chivalry, became the star of worship, an object of idolatry. We read of few divorces in the Middle Ages, or of separations, or desertions, or even alienations; these things are a modern improvement, borrowed from the customs of the Romans. The awe and devotion with which the lover regarded his bride became regard and affection in the husband. The matron maintained the rank which had been assigned to her as a maiden. The gallant warriors blended even the adoration of our Lord with adoration of our Lady,–the deification of Christ with the deification of woman. Chivalry, encouraged by the Church and always strongly allied with religious sentiments, accepted for eternal veneration the transcendent loveliness of the mother of our Lord; so that chivalric veneration for the sex culminated in the reverence which belongs to the Queen of Heaven,–_virgo fidelis; regina angelorum_. Woman assumed among kings and barons the importance which she was supposed to have in the celestial hierarchy. And besides the religious influence, the poetic imagination of the time seized upon this pure and lovely element, which passed into the songs, the tales, the talk, the thought, and the aspirations of all the knightly order.

Whence, now, this veneration for woman which arose in the Middle Ages,–a veneration, which all historians attest, such as never existed in the ancient civilization?

It was undoubtedly based on the noble qualities and domestic virtues which feudal life engendered. Women were heroines. Queen Philippa in the absence of her husband stationed herself in the Castle of Bamborough and defied the whole power of Douglas. The first military dispatch ever written in the Middle Ages was addressed to her; she even took David of Scotland a prisoner, when he invaded England. These women of chivalry were ready to undergo any fatigues to promote their husbands’ interests. They were equal to any personal sacrifices. Nothing could daunt their courage. They could defend themselves in danger, showing an extraordinary fertility of resources. They earned the devotion they called out. What more calculated to win the admiration of feudal warriors than this devotion and bravery on the part of wives and daughters! They were helpmates in every sense. They superintended the details of castles. They were always employed, and generally in what were imperative duties. If they embroidered dresses or worked tapestries, they also wove the cloth for their husband’s coats, and made his shirts and knit his stockings. If they trained hawks and falcons, they fed the poultry and cultivated the flowers. They understood the cares of the kitchen, and managed the servants.

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nce, discarded by the schools, fortunately finds a refuge among princes. Cosimo de’ Medici prefers the testimony of his senses to the voice of authority. He observes the new satellites with Galileo at Pisa, makes him a present of one thousand florins, and gives him a mere nominal office,–that of lecturing occasionally to princes, on a salary of one thousand florins for life. He is now the chosen companion of the great, and the admiration of Italy. He has rendered an immense service to astronomy. “His discovery of the satellites of Jupiter,” says Herschel, “gave the holding turn to the opinion of mankind respecting the Copernican system, and pointed out a connection between speculative astronomy and practical utility.”

But this did not complete the catalogue of his discoveries. In 1610 he perceived that Saturn appeared to be triple, and excited the curiosity of astronomers by the publication of his first “Enigma,” Altissimam planetam tergeminam observavi. He could not then perceive the rings; the planet seemed through his telescope to have the form of three concentric O’s. Soon after, in examining Venus, he saw her in the form of a crescent: Cynthiae figuras aemulatur mater amorum, “Venus rivals the phases of the moon.”

At last he discovers the spots upon the sun’s disk, and that they all revolve with the sun, and therefore that the sun has a revolution in about twenty-eight days, and may be moving on in a larger circle, with all its attendant planets, around some distant centre.

Galileo has now attained the highest object of his ambition. He is at the head, confessedly, of all the scientific men of Europe. He has an ample revenue; he is independent, and has perfect leisure. Even the Pope is gracious to him when he makes a visit to Rome; while cardinals, princes, and ambassadors rival one another in bestowing upon him attention and honors.

But there is no height of fortune from which a man may not fall; and it is usually the proud, the ostentatious, and the contemptuous who do fall, since they create envy, and are apt to make social mistakes. Galileo continued to exasperate his enemies by his arrogance and sarcasms. “They refused to be dragged at his chariot-wheels.” “The Aristotelian professors,” says Brewster, “the temporizing Jesuits, the political churchmen, and that timid but respectable body who at all times dread innovation, whether it be in legislation or science, entered into an alliance against the philosophical tyrant who threatened them with the penalties of knowledge.” The church dignitaries were especially hostile, since they thought the tendency of Galileo’s investigations was to undermine the Bible. Flanked by the logic of the schools and the popular interpretation of Scripture, and backed by the civil power, they were eager for war. Galileo wrote a letter to his friend the Abbe Castelli, the object of which was “to prove that the Scrip

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proud day when, in the ancient metropolis of the world, and in the fulness of his fame, Pope Leo III. placed the crown of Augustus upon Charlemagne’s brow, and gave to him, amid the festivities of Christmas, his apostolic benediction. His dominions now extended from Catalonia to the Bohemian forests, embracing Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy, and the Spanish main,–the largest empire which any one man has possessed since the fall of the Roman Empire. What more natural than for Charlemagne to feel that he had restored the Western Empire? What more natural than that he should have taken the title, still claimed by the Austrian emperor, in one sense his legitimate successor,–Kaiser, or Caesar? In the possession of such enormous power, he naturally dreamed of establishing a new universal military monarchy like that of the Romans,–as Charles V. dreamed, and Napoleon after him. But this is a dream that Providence has rebuked among all successive conquerors. There may have been need of the universal monarchy of the Caesars, that Christianity might spread in peace, and be protected by a reign of law and order. This at least is one of the platitudes of historians. Froude himself harps on it in his life of Caesar. Historians are fond of exalting the glories of imperialism, and everybody is dazzled by the splendor and power of ancient Roman emperors. They do not, I think, sufficiently consider the blasting influence of imperialism on the life of nations, how it dries up the sources of renovation, how it necessarily withers literature and philosophy, how nothing can thrive under it but pomp and material glories, how it paralyzes all virtuous impulses, how it kills all enthusiasm, how it crushes out all hope and lofty aspirations, how it makes slaves of its best subjects, how it fills the earth with fear, how it drains national resources to support standing armies, how it mocks all enterprises which do not receive imperial approbation, how everything is concentrated to reflect the glory of one man or family; how impossible, under its withering shade, is manly independence, or the free expression of opinions or healthy growth; how it buries up, under its armies, discontents and aspirations alike, and creates nothing but machinery which must ultimately wear out and leave a world in ruins, with nothing stable to take its place. Law and order are good things, the preservation of property is desirable, the punishment of crime is necessary; but there are other things which are valuable also. Nothing is so valuable as the preservation of national life; nothing is so healthy as scope for energies; nothing is so contemptible and degrading as universal sycophancy to official rule. There are no tyrants more oppressive than the tools of absolute power. See in what a state imperialism left the Roman Empire when it fell. There were no rallying forces; there was no resurrection of heroes. Vitality had fled. Where would Turkey be to-day without the European powers, if the Sultan’s authority were to fall? It would be in the state of ancient Babylon or Persia when those empires fell.

There is another side to imperialism besides dreaded anarchies. Moreover, the whole progress of civilization has been counter to it. The fiats of eternal justice have pronounced against it, because it is antagonistic to the dignity of man and the triumphs of reason. I would not fall in with the cant of the dignity of man, because there is no dignity to man without aid from God Almighty through His spirit and the message he has sent in Christianity. But there is dignity in man with the aid of a regenerating gospel. Some people talk of the triumphs of Christianity under the Roman emperors; but see how rapidly it was corrupted by them when they sought the aid of its institutions to bolster up their power. The power of Christianity is in its truths; in its religion, and not in its forms and institutions, in its inventions to uphold the arms of despotism and the tools of despotism. It is, and it was, and it will be through all the ages the great power of the world, against which it is vain to rebel. And that government is really the best which unfetters its spiritual influence, and encourages it; and not that government which seeks to perpetuate its corrupt and worldly institutions. The Roman emperors made Christianity an institution, and obscured its truths. And perhaps that is one reason why Providence permitted their despotism to pass away,–preferring the rude anarchy of the Germanic nations to the dead mechanism of a lifeless Church and imperial rottenness. Imperialism must ever end in rottenness. And that is one reason why the heart of Christendom–I mean the people of Europe, in its enlightened and virtuous sections has ever opposed imperialism. The progress has been slow, but marked, towards representative governments,–not the reign of the people directly, but of those whom they select to represent them. The victory has been nearly gained in England. In France the progress has been uniform since the Revolution. Napoleon revived, or sought to revive, the imperialism of Rome. He failed. There is nothing which the French now so cordially detest, since their eyes have been opened to the character and ends of that usurper, as his imperialism. It cannot be revived any more easily than the oracles of Dodona. Even in Germany there are dreadful discontents in view of the imperialism which Bismarck, by the force of successful wars, has seemingly revived. The awful standing armies are a menace to all liberty and progress and national development. In Italy itself there is the commencement of constitutional authority, although it is united under a king. The great standing warfare of modern times is constitutional authority against the absolute power of kings and emperors. And the progress has been on the side of liberty everywhere, with occasional drawbacks, such as when Louis Napoleon revived the accursed despotism of his uncle, and by the same means,–a standing army and promises of military glory.

Hence, i

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boat suits me, I will pay what you ask,” said she, “let me see it.”

Then it came upon Captain Jean that he was either talking to a lunatic or some wealthy woman with a craze. His sails were taken aback and he was left wallowing in a heavy ground sea of the mind with a smell of spice islands tinging the air.

La Belle Arlesienne, his old boat, was not worth a thousand pounds. Under the hammer heaven knows what she would have fetched, but she was his wife, or the only female thing that stood in that relationship to him. He tapped the dottle out of his pipe, then he took a pouch from his pocket and began to refill and the girl, seeing his condition, drew him aside, asking Raft to wait for her.

They went to another bollard and there, the mariner anchoring himself, she began to talk. She introduced herself. He knew all about the Gaston de Paris and Mademoiselle de Bromsart. He put his pipe in his pocket, finding himself in such famous company. She went on. In ten minutes she told him her whole story, told him just what Raft was and just how they stood related, and just how he had been treated in the hotel.

“It’s as though they had turned out my father or my brother,” said she, “we two who have fought and faced everything together have grown into companions. Friends who cannot be parted, Captain Bontemps. If he were a woman or I a man it would be easier. As it is things are difficult. Well, I do not care. I will do exactly as I like. I feel you will be my friend, too; you understand me. And I want you to look after him to-night, for in the whole of Marseilles I do not know where he could go unless to some wretched Sailors’ Home or worse. Ah, it is wicked. Of what use is it to be brave, to be honest, to be true in this world?”

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ouncil unanimously agreed to annul the proceeding of the parlement of Toulouse; Calas was declared to have been innocent, and every imputation of guilt was removed from the family. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i See \f0\i0 Causes c\’8el\’8fbres \f2\i , tome iv.; Raoul Allier, \f0\i0 Voltaire et Calas, une erreur judiciaire au XVIII^e si\’8fcle \f2\i (Paris, 1898); and biographies of Voltaire. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALASH (from Fr. \f0\i0 cal\’8fche \f2\i , derived from Polish \f0\i0 kolaska \f2\i , a wheeled carriage), a light carriage with a folding hood; the Canadian calash is two-wheeled and has a seat for the driver on the splash-board. The word is also used for a kind of hood made of silk stretched over hoops, formerly worn by women. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALASIAO, a town of the province of Pangasin\’87n, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on a branch of the Agno river, about 4 m. S. by E. of Dagupan, the N. terminal of the Manila & Dagupan railway. Pop. (1903) 16,539. In 1903, after the census had been taken, the neighbouring town of Santa Barbara (pop. 10,367) was annexed to Calasiao. It is in the midst of a fertile district and has manufactures of hats and various woven fabrics. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALASIO, MARIO DI (1550-1620), Italian Minorite friar, was born at a small town in the Abruzzi whence he took his name. Joining the Franciscans at an early age, he devoted himself to Oriental languages and became an authority on Hebrew. Coming to Rome he was appointed by Paul V., whose confessor he was, to the chair of Scripture at Ara Coeli, where he died on the 1st of February 1620. Calasio is known by his \f0\i0 Concordantiae sacrorum Bibliorum hebraicorum \f2\i , published in 4 vols. (Rome, 1622), two years after his death, a work which is based on Nathan’s \f0\i0 Hebrew Concordance \f2\i (Venice, 1523). For forty years Calasio laboured on this work, and he secured the assistance of the greatest scholars of his age. The \f0\i0 Concordance \f2\i evinces great care and accuracy. All root-words are treated in alphabetical order and the whole Bible has been collated for every passage containing the word, so as to explain the original idea, which is illustrated from the cognate usages of the Chaldee, Syrian, Rabbinical Hebrew and Arabic. Calasio gives under each Hebrew word the literal Latin translation, and notes any existing differences from the Vulgate and Septuagint readings. An incomplete English translation of the work was published in London by Romaine in 1747. Calasio also wrote a Hebrew grammar, \f0\i0 Canones generates linguae sanctatae \f2\i (Rome, 1616), and the \f0\i0 Dictionarium hebraicum \f2\i (Rome, 1617). \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALATAFIMI, a town of the province of Trapani, Sicily, 30 m. W.S.W. of Palermo direct (51\uc0\u189 m. by rail). Pop. (1901) 11,426. The name of the town is derived from the Saracenic castle of \f0\i0 Kalat-al-Fimi \f2\i (castle of Euphemius), which stands above it. The principal church contains a fine Renaissance reredos in marble. Samuel Butler, the author of \f0\i0 Erewhon \f2\i , did much of his work here. The battlefield where Garibaldi won his first victory over the Neapolitans on the 15th of May 1860, lies 2 m. S.W. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALATAY\’f2D, a town of central Spain, in the province of Saragossa, at the confluence of the rivers Jal\’97n and Jiloca, and on the Madrid-Saragossa and Calatay\’9cd-Sagunto railways. Pop. (1900) 11,526. Calatay\’9cd consists of a lower town, built on the left bank of the Jal\’97n, and an upper or Moorish town, which contains many dwellings hollowed out of the rock above and inhabited by the poorer classes. Among a number of ecclesiastical buildings, two collegiate churches are especially noteworthy. Santa Maria, originally a mosque, has a lofty octagonal tower and a fine Renaissance doorway, added in 1528; while Santo Sepulcro, built in 1141, and restored in 1613, was long the principal church of the Spanish Knights Templar. In commercial importance Calatay\’9cd ranks second only to Saragossa among the Aragonese towns, for it is the central market of the exceptionally fertile expanse watered by the Jal\’97n and Jiloca. About 2 m. E. are the ruins of the ancient \f0\i0 Bilbilis \f2\i , where the poet Martial was born c. A.D. 40. It was celebrated for its breed of horses, its armourers, its gold and its iron; but Martial also mentions its unhealthy climate, due to the icy winds which sweep down from the heights of Moncayo (7705 ft.) on the north. In the middle ages the ruins were almost destroyed to provide stone for the building of Calatay\’9cd, which was founded by a Moorish amir named Ayub and named \f0\i0 Kalat Ayub \f2\i , “Castle of Ayub.” Calatay\’9cd was captured by Alphonso I. of Aragon in 1119. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALATIA, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, 6 m. S.E. of Capua, on the Via Appia, near the point where the Via Popillia branches off from it. It is represented by the church of St. Giacomo alle Galazze. The Via Appia here, as at Capua, abandons its former S.E. direction for a length of 2000 Oscan ft. (1804\uc0\u189 English ft.), for which it runs due E. and then resumes its course S.E. There are no ruins, but a considerable quantity of d\’8ebris; and the pre-Roman necropolis was partially excavated in 1882. Ten shafts lined with slabs of tufa which were there found may have been the approaches to tombs or may have served as wells. The history of Calatia is practically that of its more powerful neighbour Capua, but as it lay near the point where the Via Appia turns east and enters the mountains, it had some strategic importance. In 313 B.C. it was taken by the Samnites and recaptured by the dictator Q. Fabius; the Samnites captured it again in 311, but it must have been retaken at an unknown date. In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua. In 174 we hear of its walls being repaired by the censors. In 59 B.C. a colony was established here by Caesar. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i See Ch. H\’9flsen in Pauly-Wissowa, \f0\i0 Realencyclop\’8adie \f2\i , iii. 1334 (Stuttgart, 1899). \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALAVERAS SKULL, a famous fossil cranium, reported by Professor J.D. Whitney as found (1886) in the undisturbed auriferous gravels of Calaveras county, California. The discovery at once raised the still discussed question of “tertiary man” in the New World. Doubt has been thrown on the genuineness of the find, as the age of the gravels is disputed and the skull is of a type corresponding exactly with that of the present Indian inhabitants of the district. Whitney assigns the fossil to late Tertiary (Pliocene) times, and concludes that “man existed in California previous to the cessation of volcanic activity in the Sierra Nevada, to the epoch of the greatest extension of the glaciers in that region and to the erosion of the present river ca\’96ons and valleys, at a time when the animal and vegetable creation differed entirely from what they now are….” The specimen is preserved in the Peabody museum, Cambridge, Mass. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALB\’e7YOG, a town of the province of S\’87mar, Philippine Islands, on the W. coast at the mouth of the Calb\’87yog river, about 30 m. N.W. of Catbalogan, the capital, in lat. 12\’a1 3′ N. Pop. (1903) 15,895. Calb\’87yog has an important export trade in hemp, which is shipped to Manila. Copra is also produced in considerable quantity, and there is fine timber in the vicinity. There are hot springs near the town. The neighbouring valleys of the G\’87ndara and Hippatan rivers are exceedingly fertile, but in 1908 were uncultivated. The climate is very warm, but healthy. The language is Visayan. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALBE, or KALBE, a town of Germany, on the Saale, in Prussian Saxony. It is known as Calbe-an-der-Saale, to distinguish it from the smaller town of Calbe on the Milde in the same province. Pop. (1905) 12,281. It is a railway junction, and among its industries are wool-weaving and the manufacture of cloth, paper, stoves, sugar and bricks. Cucumbers and onions are cultivated, and soft coal is mined in the neighbourhood. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALCAR (or KALCKER), JOHN DE (1499-1546), Italian painter, was born at Calcar, in the duchy of Cleves. He was a disciple of Titian at Venice, and perfected himself by studying Raphael. He imitated those masters so closely as to deceive the most skilful critics. Among his various pieces is a Nativity, representing the angels around the infant Christ, which he arranged so that the light emanated wholly from the child. He died at Naples. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALCEOLARIA, in botany, a genus belonging to the natural order Scrophulariaceae, containing about 150 species of herbaceous or shrubby plants, chiefly natives of the South American Andes of Peru and Chile. The calceolaria of the present day has [v.04 p.0969] been developed into a highly decorative plant, in which the herbaceous habit has preponderated. The plants are now very generally raised annually from seed, which is sown about the end of June in a mixture of loam, leaf-mould and sand, and, being very small, must be only slightly covered. When the plants are large enough to handle they are pricked out an inch or two apart into 3-inch or 5-inch pots; when a little more advanced they are potted singly. They should be wintered in a greenhouse with a night temperature of about 40\’a1, occupying a shelf near the light. By the end of February they should be moved into 8-inch or 10-inch pots, using a compost of three parts good turfy loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part thoroughly rotten manure, with a fair addition of sand. They need plenty of light and air, but must not be subjected to draughts. When the pots get well filled with roots, they must be liberally supplied with manure water. In all stages of growth the plants are subject to the attacks of the green-fly, for which they must be fumigated. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i The so-called shrubby calceolarias used for bedding are increased from cuttings, planted in autumn in cold frames, where they can be wintered, protected from frost by the use of mats and a good layer of litter placed over the glass and round the sides. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALCHAQUI, a tribe of South American Indians, now extinct, who formerly occupied northern Argentina. Stone and other remains prove them to have reached a high degree of civilization. They offered a vigorous resistance to the first Spanish colonists coming from Chile. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALCHAS, of Mycenae or Megara, son of Thestor, the most famous soothsayer among the Greeks at the time of the Trojan war. He foretold the duration of the siege of Troy, and, when the fleet was detained by adverse winds at Aulis, he explained the cause and demanded the sacrifice of Iphigeneia. When the Greeks were visited with pestilence on account of Chryseis, he disclosed the reasons of Apollo’s anger. It was he who suggested that Neoptolemus and Philoctetes should be fetched from Scyros and Lemnos to Troy, and he was one of those who advised the construction of the wooden horse. When the Greeks, on their journey home after the fall of Troy, were overtaken by a storm, Calchas is said to have been thrown ashore at Colophon. According to another story, he foresaw the storm and did not attempt to return by sea. It had been predicted that he should die when he met his superior in divination; and the prophecy was fulfilled in the person of Mopsus, whom Calchas met in the grove of the Clarian Apollo near Colophon. Having been beaten in a trial of soothsaying, Calchas died of chagrin or committed suicide. He had a temple and oracle in Apulia. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i Ovid, \f0\i0 Metam. \f2\i xii. 18 ff.; Homer, \f0\i0 Iliad \f2\i i. 68, ii. 322; Strabo vi. p. 284, xiv. p. 642. \f0\i0 \ \f2\i CALCITE, a mineral consisting of naturally occurring calcium carbonate, CaCO \f0\i0 3, crystallizing in the rhombohedral system. With the exception of quartz, it is the most widely distributed of minerals, whilst in the beautiful development and extraordinary variety of form of its crystals it is surpassed by none. In the massive condition it occurs as large rock-masses (marble, limestone, chalk) which are often of organic origin, being formed of the remains of molluscs, corals, crinoids, &c., the hard parts of which consist largely of calcite.\ The name calcite (Lat. \f2\i calx \f0\i0 , \f2\i calcis \f0\i0 , meaning burnt lime) is of comparatively recent origin, and was first applied, in 1836, to the “barleycorn” pseudomorphs of calcium carbonate after celestite from Sangerhausen in Thuringia; it was not until about 1843 that the name was used in its present sense. The mineral had, however, long been known under the names calcareous spar and calc-spar, and the beautifully transparent variety called Iceland-spar had been much studied. The strong double refraction and perfect cleavages of Iceland-spar were described in detail by Erasmus Bartholinus in 1669 in his book \f2\i Experimenta Crystalli Islandici disdiaclastici \f0\i0 ; the study of the same mineral led Christiaan Huygens to discover in 1690 the laws of double refraction, and E.L. Malus in 1808 the polarization of light.\ An important property of calcite is the great ease with which it may be cleaved in three directions; the three perfect cleavages are parallel to the faces of the primitive rhombohedron, and the angle between them was determined by W.H. Wollaston in 1812, with the aid of his newly invented reflective goniometer, to be 74\’a1 55′. The cleavage is of great help in distinguishing calcite from other minerals of similar appearance. The hardness of 3 (it is readily scratched with a knife), the specific gravity of 2.72, and the fact that it effervesces briskly in contact with cold dilute acids are also characters of determinative value.\ [Illustration: FIGS. 1-6.--Crystals of Calcite.]\ Crystals of calcite are extremely varied in form, but, as a rule, they may be referred to four distinct habits, namely: rhombohedral, prismatic, scalenohedral and tabular. The primitive rhombohedron, r \{100\} (fig. 1), is comparatively rare except in combination with other forms. A flatter rhombohedron, e \{110\}, is shown in fig. 2, and a more acute one, f \{11-1\}, in fig. 3. These three rhombohedra are related in such a manner that, when in combination, the faces of r truncate the polar edges of f, and the faces of e truncate the edges of r. The crystal of prismatic habit shown in fig. 4 is a combination of the prism m \{2-1-1\} and the rhombohedron e \{110\}; fig. 5 is a combination of the scalenohedron v \{20-1\} and the rhombohedron r \{100\}; and the crystal of tabular habit represented in fig. 6 is a combination of the basal pinacoid c \{111\}, prism m \{2-1-1\}, and rhombohedron e \{110\}. In these figures only six distinct forms (r, e, f, m, v, c) are represented, but more than 400 have been recorded for calcite, whilst the combinations of them are almost endless.\ Depending on the habits of the crystals, certain trivial names have been used, such, for example, as dog-tooth-spar for the crystals of scalenohedral habit, so common in the Derbyshire lead mines and limestone caverns; nail-head-spar for crystals terminated by the obtuse rhombohedron e, which are common in the lead mines of Alston Moor in Cumberland; slate-spar (German \f2\i Schieferspath \f0\i0 ) for crystals of tabular habit, and sometimes as thin as paper: cannon-spar for crystals of prismatic habit terminated by the basal pinacoid c.\ Calcite is also remarkable for the variety and perfection of its twinned crystals. Twinned crystals, though not of infrequent occurrence, are, however, far less common than simple (untwinned) crystals. No less than four well-defined twin-laws are to be distinguished:–\ [Illustration: FIG. 7-10.--Twinned Crystals of Calcite.]\ i. Twin-plane c (111).–Here there is rotation of one portion with respect to the other through 180\’a1 about the principal (trigonal) axis, which is perpendicular to the plane c (111); or the same result may be obtained by reflection across this plane. Fig. 7 shows a prismatic crystal (like fig. 4) twinned in this manner, and fig. 8 represents a twinned scalenohedron v \{20-1\}.\ ii. Twin-plane e (110).–The principal axes of the two portions are inclined at an angle of 52\’a1 30\uc0\u189 ‘. Repeated twinning on this plane is very common, and the twin-lamellae (fig. 9) to which it gives rise are often to be observed in the grains of calcite of crystalline limestones which have been subjected to pressure. This lamellar twinning is of secondary origin; it may be readily produced artificially by pressure, for example, by pressing a knife into the edge of a cleavage rhombohedron.\ [v.04 p.0970] iii. Twin-plane r (100).–Here the principal axes of the two portions are nearly at right angles (89\’a1 14′), and one of the directions of cleavage in both portions is parallel to the twin-plane. Fine crystals of prismatic habit twinned according to this law were formerly found in considerable numbers at Wheal Wrey in Cornwall, and of scalenohedral habit at Eyam in Derbyshire and Cleator Moor in Cumberland; those from the last two localities are known as “butterfly twins” or “heart-shaped twins” (fig. 10), according to their shape.\ iv. Twin-plane f (11-1).–The principal axes are here inclined at 53\’a1 46′. This is the rarest twin-law of calcite.\ Calcite when pure, as in the well-known Iceland-spar, is perfectly transparent and colourless. The lustre is vitreous. Owing to the presence of various impurities, the transparency and colour may vary considerably. Crystals are often nearly white or colourless, usually with a slight yellowish tinge. The yellowish colour is in most cases due to the presence of iron, but in some cases it has been proved to be due to organic matter (such as apocrenic acid) derived from the humus overlying the rocks in which the crystals were formed. An opaque calcite of a grass-green colour, occurring as large cleavage masses in central India and known as hislopite, owes its colour to enclosed “green-earth” (glauconite and celadonite). A stalagmitic calcite of a beautiful purple colour, from Reichelsdorf in Hesse, is coloured by cobalt.\ Optically, calcite is uniaxial with negative bi-refringence, the index of refraction for the ordinary ray being greater than for the extraordinary ray; for sodium-light the former is 1.6585 and the latter 1.4862. The difference, 0.1723, between these two indices

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tout, suivant la remarque de Conseil. nous jouissions d’une entière liberté, nous étions délicatement et abondamment nourris. Notre hôte se tenait dans les termes de son traité. Nous ne pouvions nous plaindre, et d’ailleurs, la singularité même de notre destinée nous réservait de si belles compensations, que nous n’avions pas encore le droit de l’accuser.

Ce jour-là, je commençai le journal de ces aventures, ce qui m’a permis de les raconter avec la plus scrupuleuse exactitude, et, détail curieux, je l’écrivis sur un papier fabriqué avec la zostère marine.

Le 11 novembre, de grand matin, l’air frais répandu à l’intérieur du Nautilus m’apprit que nous étions revenus à la surface de l’Océan, afin de renouveler les provisions d’oxygène. Je me dirigeai vers l’escalier central, et je montai sur la plate-forme.

Il était six heures. Je trouvai le temps couvert, la mer grise, mais calme. A peine de houle. Le capitaine Nemo, que j’espérais rencontrer là, viendrait-il ? Je n’aperçus que le timonier, emprisonné dans sa cage de verre. Assis sur la saillie produite par la coque du canot, j’aspirai avec délices les émanations salines.

Peu à peu, la brume se dissipa sous l’action des rayons solaires. L’astre radieux débordait de l’horizon oriental. La mer s’enflamma sous son regard comme une traînée de poudre. Les nuages, éparpillés dans les hauteurs, se colorèrent de tons vifs admirablement nuancés, et de nombreuses « langues de chat » annoncèrent du vent pour toute la journée.

Mais que faisait le vent à ce Nautilus que les tempêtes ne pouvaient effrayer !

J’admirai donc ce joyeux lever de soleil, si gai, si vivifiant, lorsque j’entendis quelqu’un monter vers la plate-forme.

Je me préparais à saluer le capitaine Nemo, mais ce fut son second – que j’avais déjà vu pendant la première visite du capitaine – qui apparut. Il s’avança sur la plate-forme. et ne sembla pas s’apercevoir de ma présence. Sa puissante lunette aux yeux, il scruta tous les points de l’horizon avec une attention extrême. Puis, cet examen fait, il s’approcha du panneau, et prononça une phrase dont voici exactement les termes. Je l’ai retenue, car, chaque matin, elle se reproduisit dans des conditions identiques. Elle était ainsi conçue :

« Nautron respoc lorni virch. »

Ce qu’elle signifiait, je ne saurais le dire.

Ces mots prononcés, le second redescendit. Je pensai que le Nautilus allait reprendre sa navigation sous-marine. Je regagnai donc le panneau, et par les coursives je revins à ma chambre.

Cinq jours s’écoulèrent ainsi, sans que la situation se modifiât. Chaque matin, je montais sur la plate-forme. La même phrase était prononcée par le même individu. Le capitaine Nemo ne paraissait pas.

J’avais pris mon parti de ne plus le voir, quand, le 16 novembre, rentré dans ma chambre avec Ned et Conseil, je trouvai sur la table un billet à mon adresse.

Je l’ouvris d’une main impatiente. Il était écrit d’une écriture franche et nette, mais un peu gothique et qui rappelait les types allemands.

Ce billet était libellé en ces termes :

_Monsieur le professeur Aronnax, à bord du_ Nautilus.

_16 novembre 1867._

_Le capitaine Nemo invite monsieur le professeur Aronnax à une partie de chasse qui aura lieu demain matin dans ses forêts de l’île Crespo. Il espère que rien n’empêchera monsieur le professeur d’y assister, et il verra avec plaisir que ses compagnons se joignent à lui._

Le commandant du Nautilus, _Capitaine NEMO._ »

« Une chasse ! s’écria Ned.

— Et dans ses forêts de l’île Crespo ! ajouta Conseil.

— Mais il va donc à terre, ce particulier-là ? reprit Ned Land.

— Cela me paraît clairement indiqué, dis-je en relisant la lettre.

— Eh bien ! il faut accepter, répliqua le Canadien. Une fois sur la terre ferme, nous aviserons à prendre un parti. D’ailleurs, je ne serai pas fâché de manger quelques morceaux de venaison fraîche. »

Sans chercher à concilier ce qu’il y avait de contradictoire entre l’horreur manifeste du capitaine Nemo pour les continents et les îles, et son invitation de chasser en forêt, je me contentai de répondre :

« Voyons d’abord ce que c’est que l’île Crespo. »

Je consultai le planisphère, et, par 32°40′ de latitude nord et 167°50′ de longitude ouest, je trouvai un îlot qui fut reconnu en 1801 par le capitaine Crespo, et que les anciennes cartes espagnoles nommaient Rocca de la Plata, c’est-à-dire « Roche d’Argent ». Nous étions donc à dix-huit cents milles environ de notre point de départ, et la direction un peu modifiée du Nautilus le ramenait vers le sud-est.

Je montrai à mes compagnons ce petit roc perdu au milieu du Pacifique nord.

« Si le capitaine Nemo va quelquefois à terre, leur dis-je, il choisit du moins des îles absolument désertes ! »

Ned Land hocha la tête sans répondre, puis Conseil et lui me quittèrent. Après un souper qui me fut servi par le stewart muet et impassible, je m’endormis, non sans quelque préoccupation.

Le lendemain, 17 novembre, à mon réveil, je sentis que le Nautilus était absolument immobile. Je m’habillai lestement, et j’entrai dans le grand salon.

Le capitaine Nemo était là. Il m’attendait, se leva, salua, et me demanda s’il me convenait de l’accompagner.

Comme il ne fit aucune allusion à son absence pendant ces huit jours, je m’abstins de lui en parler, et je répondis simplement que mes compagnons et moi nous étions prêts à le suivre.

« Seulement, monsieur, ajoutai-je, je me permettrai de vous adresser une question.

— Adressez, monsieur Aronnax, et, si je puis y répondre, j’y répondrai.

— Eh bien, capitaine, comment se fait-il que vous, qui avez rompu toute relation avec la terre, vous possédiez des forêts dans l’île Crespo ?

— Monsieur le professeur, me répondit le capitaine, les forêts que je possède ne demandent au soleil ni sa lumière ni sa chaleur. Ni les lions, ni les tigres, ni les panthères, ni aucun quadrupède ne les fréquentent. Elles ne sont connues que de moi seul. Elles ne poussent que pour moi seul. Ce ne sont point des forêts terrestres, mais bien des forêts sous-marines.

— Des forêts sous-marines ! m’écriai-je.

— Oui, monsieur le professeur.

— Et vous m’offrez de m’y conduire ?

— Précisément.

— A pied ?

— Et même à pied sec.

— En chassant ?

— En chassant.

— Le fusil à la main ?

— Le fusil à la main. »

Je regardai le commandant du Nautilus d’un air qui n’avait rien de flatteur pour sa personne.

« Décidément, il a le cerveau malade, pensai-je. Il a eu un accès qui a dure huit jours, et même qui dure encore. C’est dommage ! Je l’aimais mieux étrange que fou ! »

Cette pensée se lisait clairement sur mon visage, mais le capitaine Nemo se contenta de m’inviter à le suivre, et je le suivis en homme résigné à tout.

Nous arrivâmes dans la salle à manger, où le déjeuner se trouvait servi.

« Monsieur Aronnax, me dit le capitaine, je vous prierai de partager mon déjeuner sans façon. Nous causerons en mangeant. Mais, si je vous ai promis une promenade en forêt, je ne me suis point engagé à vous y faire rencontrer un restaurant. Déjeunez donc en homme qui ne dînera probablement que fort tard. »

Je fis honneur au repas. Il se composait de divers poissons et de tranches d’holoturies, excellents zoophytes, relevés d’algues très apéritives, telles que la Porphyria laciniata et la Laurentia primafetida. La boisson se composait d’eau limpide à laquelle, à l’exemple du capitaine, j’ajoutai quelques gouttes d’une liqueur fermentée, extraite, suivant la mode kamchatkienne, de l’algue connue sous le nom de « Rhodoménie palmée ».

Le capitaine Nemo mangea, d’abord, sans prononcer une seule parole. Puis, il me dit :

« Monsieur le professeur, quand je vous ai proposé de venir chasser dans mes forêts de Crespo, vous m’avez cru en contradiction avec moi-même. Quand je vous ai appris qu’il s’agissait de forêts sous-marines, vous m’avez cru fou. Monsieur le professeur, il ne faut jamais juger les hommes à la légère.

— Mais, capitaine, croyez que…

— Veuillez m’écouter, et vous verrez si vous devez m’accuser de folie ou de contradiction.

— Je vous écoute.

— Monsieur le professeur, vous le savez aussi bien que moi, l’homme peut vivre sous l’eau à la condition d’emporter avec lui sa provision d’air respirable. Dans les travaux sous-marins, l’ouvrier, revêtu d’un vêtement imperméable et la tête emprisonnée dans une capsule de métal, reçoit l’air de l’extérieur au moyen de pompes foulantes et de régulateurs d’écoulement.

— C’est l’appareil des scaphandres, dis-je.

— En effet, mais dans ces conditions, l’homme n’est pas libre. Il est rattache à la pompe qui lui envoie l’air par un tuyau de caoutchouc, véritable chaîne qui le rive à la terre, et si nous devions être ainsi retenus au Nautilus, nous ne pourrions aller loin.

— Et le moyen d’être libre ? demandai-je.

— C’est d’employer l’appareil Rouquayrol-Denayrouze, imaginé par deux de vos compatriotes, mais que j’ai perfectionné pour mon usage, et qui vous permettra de vous risquer dans ces nouvelles conditions physiologiques, sans que vos organes en souffrent aucunement. Il se compose d’un réservoir en tôle épaisse, dans lequel j’emmagasine l’air sous une pression de cinquante atmosphères. Ce réservoir se fixe sur le dos au moyen de bretelles, comme un sac de soldat. Sa partie supérieure forme une boîte d’où l’air, maintenu par un mécanisme à soufflet, ne peut s’échapper qu’à sa tension normale. Dans l’appareil Rouquayrol, tel qu’il est employé, deux tuyaux en caoutchouc, partant de cette boîte, viennent aboutir à une sorte de pavillon qui emprisonne le nez et la bouche de l’opérateur ; l’un sert à l’introduction de l’air inspiré, l’autre à l’issue de l’air expiré, et la langue ferme celui-ci ou celui-là, suivant les besoins de la respiration. Mais, moi qui affronte des pressions considérables au fond des mers, j’ai dû enfermer ma tête, comme celle des scaphandres, dans une sphère de cuivre, et c’est à cette sphère qu’aboutissent les deux tuyaux inspirateurs et expirateurs.

— Parfaitement, capitaine Nemo, mais l’air que vous emportez doit s’user vite, et dès qu’il ne contient plus que quinze pour cent d’oxygène, il devient irrespirable.

Sans doute, mais je vous l’ai dit, monsieur Aronnax, les pompes du Nautilus me permettent de l’emmagasiner sous une pression considérable, et, dans ces conditions, le réservoir de l’appareil peut fournir de l’air respirable pendant neuf ou dix heures.

— Je n’ai plus d’objection à faire, répondis-je. Je vous demanderai seulement, capitaine, comment vous pouvez éclairer votre route au fond de l’Océan ?

— Avec l’appareil Ruhmkorff, monsieur Aronnax. Si le premier se porte sur le dos, le second s’attache à la ceinture. Il se compose d’une pile de Bunzen que je mets en activité, non avec du bichromate de potasse, mais avec du sodium. Une bobine d’induction recueille l’électricité produite, et la dirige vers une lanterne d’une disposition particulière. Dans cette lanterne se trouve un serpentin de verre qui contient seulement un résidu de gaz carbonique. Quand l’appareil fonctionne, ce gaz devient lumineux, en donnant une lumière blanchâtre et continue. Ainsi pourvu, je respire et je vois.

— Capitaine Nemo, à toutes mes objections vous faites de si écrasantes réponses que je n’ose plus douter. Cependant, si je suis bien forcé d’admettre les appareils Rouquayrol et Ruhmkorff, je demande à faire des réserves pour le fusil dont vous voulez m’armer.

— Mais ce n’est point un fusil à poudre, répondit le capitaine.

— C’est donc un fusil à vent ?

— Sans doute. Comment voulez-vous que je fabrique de la poudre à mon bord, n’ayant ni salpêtre, ni soufre ni charbon ?

— D’ailleurs, dis-je, pour tirer sous l’eau, dans un milieu huit cent cinquante-cinq fois plus dense que l’air il faudrait vaincre une résistance considérable.

— Ce ne serait pas une raison. Il existe certains canons, perfectionnés après Fulton par les Anglais Philippe Coles et Burley, par le Français Furcy, par l’Italien Landi, qui sont munis d’un système particulier de fermeture, et qui peuvent tirer dans ces conditions. Mais je vous le répète, n’ayant pas de poudre, je l’ai remplacée par de l’air à haute pression, que les pompes du Nautilus me fournissent abondamment.

— Mais cet air doit rapidement s’user.

— Eh bien, n’ai-je pas mon réservoir Rouquayrol, qui peut, au besoin, m’en fournir. Il suffit pour cela d’un robinet ad hoc. D’ailleurs, monsieur Aronnax, vous verrez par vous-même que, pendant ces chasses sous-marines, on ne fait pas grande dépense d’air ni de balles.

— Cependant, il me semble que dans cette demi-obscurité, et au milieu de ce liquide très dense par rapport à l’atmosphère, les coups ne peuvent porter loin et sont difficilement mortels ?

— Monsieur, avec ce fusil tous les coups sont mortels, au contraire, et dès qu’un animal est touché, si légèrement que ce soit, il tombe foudroyé.

— Pourquoi ?

— Parce que ce ne sont pas des balles ordinaires que ce fusil lance, mais de petites capsules de verre – inventées par le chimiste autrichien Leniebroek – et dont j’ai un approvisionnement considérable. Ces capsules de verre, recouvertes d’une armature d’acier, et alourdies par un culot de plomb, sont de véritables petites bouteilles de Leyde, dans lesquelles l’électricité est forcée à une très haute tension. Au plus léger choc, elles se déchargent, et l’animal, si puissant qu’il soit, tombe mort. J’ajouterai que ces capsules ne sont pas plus grosses que du numéro quatre, et que la charge d’un fusil ordinaire pourrait en contenir dix.

— Je ne discute plus, répondis-je en me levant de table, et je n’ai plus qu’à prendre mon fusil. D’ailleurs, ou vous Irez, j’irai. »

Le capitaine Nemo me conduisit vers l’arrière du Nautilus, et, en passant devant la cabine de Ned et de Conseil, j’appelai mes deux compagnons qui nous suivirent aussitôt.

Puis, nous arrivâmes à une cellule située en abord près de la chambre des machines, et dans laquelle nous devions revêtir nos vêtements de promenade.



Cette cellule était, à proprement parler, l’arsenal et le vestiaire du Nautilus. Une douzaine d’appareils de scaphandres, suspendus à la paroi, attendaient les promeneurs.

Ned Land, en les voyant, manifesta une répugnance évidente à s’en revêtir.

« Mais, mon brave Ned, lui dis-je, les forêts de l’île de Crespo ne sont que des forêts sous-marines !

— Bon ! fit le harponneur désappointé, qui voyait s’évanouir ses rêves de viande fraîche. Et vous, monsieur Aronnax, vous allez vous introduire dans ces habits-là ?

— Il le faut bien, maître Ned.

— Libre à vous, monsieur, répondit le harponneur, haussant les épaules, mais quant à moi, à moins qu’on ne m’y force, je n’entrerai jamais là-dedans.

— On ne vous forcera pas, maître Ned, dit le capitaine Nemo.

— Et Conseil va se risquer ? demanda Ned.

— Je suis monsieur partout où va monsieur », répondit Conseil.

Sur un appel du capitaine, deux hommes de l’équipage vinrent nous aider à revêtir ces lourds vêtements imperméables, faits en caoutchouc sans couture, et préparés de manière à supporter des pressions considérables. On eût dit une armure à la fois souple et résistante. Ces vêtements formaient pantalon et veste. Le pantalon se terminait par d’épaisses chaussures, garnies de lourdes semelles de plomb. Le tissu de la veste était maintenu par des lamelles de cuivre qui cuirassaient la poitrine, la défendaient contre la poussée des eaux, et laissaient les poumons fonctionner librement ; ses manches finissaient en forme de gants assouplis, qui ne contrariaient aucunement les mouvements de la main.

Il y avait loin, on le voit, de ces scaphandres perfectionnés aux vêtements informes, tels que les cuirasses de liège, les soubrevestes, les habits de mer, les coffres, etc., qui furent inventés et prônés dans le XVIIIe siècle.

Le capitaine Nemo, un de ses compagnons – sorte d’Hercule, qui devait être d’une force prodigieuse – , Conseil et moi, nous eûmes bientôt revêtu ces habits de scaphandres. Il ne s’agissait plus que d’emboîter notre tête dans sa sphère métallique. Mais, avant de procéder à cette opération, je demandai au capitaine la permission d’examiner les fusils qui nous étaient destinés.

L’un des hommes du Nautilus me présenta un fusil simple dont la crosse, faite en tôle d’acier et creuse à l’intérieur, était d’assez grande dimension. Elle servait de réservoir à l’air comprimé, qu’une soupape, manoeuvrée par une gâchette, laissait échapper dans le tube de métal. Une boîte à projectiles, évidée dans l’épaisseur de la crosse, renfermait une vingtaine de balles électriques, qui, au moyen d’un ressort, se plaçaient automatiquement dans le canon du fusil. Dès qu’un coup était tiré, l’autre était prêt à partir.

« Capitaine Nemo, dis-je, cette arme est parfaite et d’un maniement facile. Je ne demande plus qu’à l’essayer. Mais comment allons-nous gagner le fond de la mer ?

— En ce moment, monsieur le professeur, le Nautilus est échoué par dix mètres d’eau, et nous n’avons plus qu’à partir.

— Mais comment sortirons-nous ?

— Vous l’allez voir. »

Le capitaine Nemo introduisit sa tête dans la calotte sphérique. Conseil et moi, nous en fîmes autant, non sans avoir entendu le Canadien nous lancer un « bonne chasse » ironique. Le haut de notre vêtement était terminé par un collet de cuivre taraudé, sur lequel se vissait ce casque de métal. Trois trous, protégés par des verres épais, permettaient de voir suivant toutes les directions, rien qu’en tournant la tête à l’intérieur de cette sphère. Dès qu’elle fut en place, les appareils Rouquayrol, placés sur notre dos, commencèrent à fonctionner, et, pour mon compte, je respirai à l’aise.

La lampe Ruhmkorff suspendue à ma ceinture, le fusil à la main, j’étais prêt à partir. Mais, pour être franc, emprisonné dans ces lourds vêtements et cloué au tillac par mes semelles de plomb, il m’eût été impossible de faire un pas.

Mais ce cas était prévu, car je sentis que l’on me poussait dans une petite chambre contiguë au vestiaire. Mes compagnons, également remorqués, me suivaient. J’entendis une porte, munie d’obturateurs, se refermer sur nous, et une profonde obscurité nous enveloppa.

Après quelques minutes, un vif sifflement parvint à mon oreille. Je sentis une certaine impression de froid monter de mes pieds à ma poitrine. Évidemment, de l’intérieur du

material educativo para niños

ading this letter from the honorable Secretary of the Navy, I understood at last that my true vocation, my sole purpose in life, was to hunt down this disturbing monster and rid the world of it.

Even so, I had just returned from an arduous journey, exhausted and badly needing a rest. I wanted nothing more than to see my country again, my friends, my modest quarters by the Botanical Gardens, my dearly beloved collections! But now nothing could hold me back. I forgot everything else, and without another thought of exhaustion, friends, or collections, I accepted the American government’s offer.

“Besides,” I mused, “all roads lead home to Europe, and our unicorn may be gracious enough to take me toward the coast of France! That fine animal may even let itself be captured in European seas–as a personal favor to me–and I’ll bring back to the Museum of Natural History at least half a meter of its ivory lance!”

But in the meantime I would have to look for this narwhale in the northern Pacific Ocean; which meant returning to France by way of the Antipodes.

“Conseil!” I called in an impatient voice.

Conseil was my manservant. A devoted lad who went with me on all my journeys; a gallant Flemish boy whom I genuinely liked and who returned the compliment; a born stoic, punctilious on principle, habitually hardworking, rarely startled by life’s surprises, very skillful with his hands, efficient in his every duty, and despite his having a name that means “counsel,” never giving advice– not even the unsolicited kind!

From rubbing shoulders with scientists in our little universe by the Botanical Gardens, the boy had come to know a thing or two. In Conseil I had a seasoned specialist in biological classification, an enthusiast who could run with acrobatic agility up and down the whole ladder of branches, groups, classes, subclasses, orders, families, genera, subgenera, species, and varieties. But there his science came to a halt. Classifying was everything to him, so he knew nothing else. Well versed in the theory of classification, he was poorly versed in its practical application, and I doubt that he could tell a sperm whale from a baleen whale! And yet, what a fine, gallant lad!

For the past ten years, Conseil had gone with me wherever science beckoned. Not once did he comment on the length or the hardships of a journey. Never did he object to buckling up his suitcase for any country whatever, China or the Congo, no matter how far off it was. He went here, there, and everywhere in perfect contentment. Moreover, he enjoyed excellent health that defied all ailments, owned solid muscles, but hadn’t a nerve in him, not a sign of nerves– the mental type, I mean.

The lad was thirty years old, and his age to that of his employer was as fifteen is to twenty. Please forgive me for this underhanded way of admitting I had turned forty.

But Conseil had one flaw. He was a fanatic on formality, and he only addressed me in the third person–to the point where it got tiresome.

“Conseil!” I repeated, while feverishly beginning my preparations for departure.

To be sure, I had confidence in this devoted lad. Ordinarily, I never asked whether or not it suited him to go with me on my journeys; but this time an expedition was at issue that could drag on indefinitely, a hazardous undertaking whose purpose was to hunt an animal that could sink a frigate as easily as a walnut shell! There was good reason to stop and think, even for the world’s most emotionless man. What would Conseil say?

“Conseil!” I called a third time.

Conseil appeared.

“Did master summon me?” he said, entering.

“Yes, my boy. Get my things ready, get yours ready. We’re departing in two hours.”

“As master wishes,” Conseil replied serenely.

“We haven’t a moment to lose. Pack as much into my trunk as you can, my traveling kit, my suits, shirts, and socks, don’t bother counting, just squeeze it all in–and hurry!”

“What about master’s collections?” Conseil ventured to observe.

“We’ll deal with them later.”

“What! The archaeotherium, hyracotherium, oreodonts, cheiropotamus, and master’s other fossil skeletons?”

“The hotel will keep them for us.”

“What about master’s live babirusa?”

“They’ll feed it during our absence. Anyhow, we’ll leave instructions to ship the whole menagerie to France.”

“Then we aren’t returning to Paris?” Conseil asked.

“Yes, we are . . . certainly . . . ,” I replied evasively, “but after we make a detour.”

“Whatever detour master wishes.”

“Oh, it’s nothing really! A route slightly less direct, that’s all. We’re leaving on the Abraham Lincoln.”

“As master thinks best,” Conseil replied placidly.

“You see, my friend, it’s an issue of the monster, the notorious narwhale. We’re going to rid the seas of it! The author of a two-volume work, in quarto, on The Mysteries of the Great Ocean Depths has no excuse for not setting sail with Commander Farragut. It’s a glorious mission but also a dangerous one! We don’t know where it will take us! These beasts can be quite unpredictable! But we’re going just the same! We have a commander who’s game for anything!”

“What master does, I’ll do,” Conseil replied.

“But think it over, because I don’t want to hide anything from you. This is one of those voyages from which people don’t always come back!”

“As master wishes.”

A quarter of an hour later, our trunks were ready. Conseil did them in a flash, and I was sure the lad hadn’t missed a thing, because he classified shirts and suits as expertly as birds and mammals.

The hotel elevator dropped us off in the main vestibule on the mezzanine. I went down a short stair leading to the ground floor. I settled my bill at that huge counter that was always under siege by a considerable crowd. I left instructions for shipping my containers of stuffed animals and dried plants to Paris, France. I opened a line of credit sufficient to cover the babirusa and, Conseil at my heels, I jumped into a carriage.

For a fare of twenty francs, the vehicle went down Broadway to Union Square, took Fourth Ave. to its junction with Bowery St., turned into Katrin St. and halted at Pier 34. There the Katrin ferry transferred men, horses, and carriage to Brooklyn, that great New York annex located on the left bank of the East River, and in a few minutes we arrived at the wharf next to which the Abraham Lincoln was vomiting torrents of black smoke from its two funnels.

Our baggage was immediately carried to the deck of the frigate. I rushed aboard. I asked for Commander Farragut. One of the sailors led me to the afterdeck, where I stood in the presence of a smart-looking officer who extended his hand to me.

“Professor Pierre Aronnax?” he said to me.

“The same,” I replied. “Commander Farragut?”

“In person. Welcome aboard, professor. Your cabin is waiting for you.”

I bowed, and letting the commander attend to getting under way, I was taken to the cabin that had been set aside for me.

The Abraham Lincoln had been perfectly chosen and fitted out for its new assignment. It was a high-speed frigate furnished with superheating equipment that allowed the tension of its steam to build to seven atmospheres. Under this pressure the Abraham Lincoln reached an average speed of 18.3 miles per hour, a considerable speed but still not enough to cope with our gigantic cetacean.

The frigate’s interior accommodations complemented its nautical virtues. I was well satisfied with my cabin, which was located in the stern and opened into the officers’ mess.

“We’ll be quite comfortable here,” I told Conseil.

“With all due respect to master,” Conseil replied, “as comfortable as a hermit crab inside the shell of a whelk.”

I left Conseil to the proper stowing of our luggage and climbed on deck to watch the preparations for getting under way.

Just then Commander Farragut was giving orders to cast off the last moorings holding the Abraham Lincoln to its Brooklyn pier. And so if I’d been delayed by a quarter of an hour or even less, the frigate would have gone without me, and I would have missed out on this unearthly, extraordinary, and inconceivable expedition, whose true story might well meet with some skepticism.

But Commander Farragut didn’t want to waste a single day, or even a single hour, in making for those seas where the animal had just been sighted. He summoned his engineer.

“Are we up to pressure?” he asked the man.

“Aye, sir,” the engineer replied.

“Go ahead, then!” Commander Farragut called.

At this order, which was relayed to the engine by means of a compressed-air device, the mechanics activated the start-up wheel. Steam rushed whistling into the gaping valves. Long horizontal pistons groaned and pushed the tie rods of the drive shaft. The blades of the propeller churned the waves with increasing speed, and the Abraham Lincoln moved out majestically amid a spectator-laden escort of some 100 ferries and tenders.*

*Author’s Note: Tenders are small steamboats that assist the big liners.

The wharves of Brooklyn, and every part of New York bordering the East River, were crowded with curiosity seekers. Departing from 500,000 throats, three cheers burst forth in succession. Thousands of handkerchiefs were waving above these tightly packed masses, hailing the Abraham

Lincoln until it reached the waters of the Hudson River, at the tip of the long peninsula that forms New York City.

The frigate then went along the New Jersey coast–the wonderful right bank of this river, all loaded down with country homes– and passed by the forts to salutes from their biggest cannons. The Abraham Lincoln replied by three times lowering and hoisting the American flag, whose thirty-nine stars gleamed from the gaff of the mizzen sail; then, changing speed to take the buoy-marked channel that curved into the inner bay formed by the spit of Sandy Hook, it hugged this sand-covered strip of land where thousands of spectators acclaimed us one more time.

The escort of boats and tenders still followed the frigate and only left us when we came abreast of the lightship, whose two signal lights mark the entrance of the narrows to Upper New York Bay.

Three o’clock then sounded. The harbor pilot went down into his dinghy and rejoined a little schooner waiting for him to leeward. The furnaces were stoked; the propeller churned the waves more swiftly; the frigate skirted the flat, yellow coast of Long Island; and at eight o’clock in the evening, after the lights of Fire Island had vanished into the northwest, we ran at full steam onto the dark waters of the Atlantic.


Ned Land

COMMANDER FARRAGUT was a good seaman, worthy of the frigate he commanded. His ship and he were one. He was its very soul. On the cetacean question no doubts arose in his mind, and he didn’t allow the animal’s existence to be disputed aboard his vessel. He believed in it as certain pious women believe in the leviathan from the Book of Job–out of faith, not reason. The monster existed, and he had vowed to rid the seas of it. The man was a sort of Knight of Rhodes, a latter-day Sir Dieudonné of Gozo, on his way to fight an encounter with the dragon devastating the island. Either Commander Farragut would slay the narwhale, or the narwhale would slay Commander Farragut. No middle of the road for these two.

The ship’s officers shared the views of their leader. They could be heard chatting, discussing, arguing, calculating the different chances of an encounter, and observing the vast expanse of the ocean. Voluntary watches from the crosstrees of the topgallant sail were self-imposed by more than one who would have cursed such toil under any other circumstances. As often as the sun swept over its daily arc, the masts were populated with sailors whose feet itched and couldn’t hold still on the planking of the deck below! And the Abraham Lincoln’s stempost hadn’t even cut the suspected waters of the Pacific.

As for the crew, they only wanted to encounter the unicorn, harpoon it, haul it on board, and carve it up. They surveyed the sea with scrupulous care. Besides, Commander Farragut had mentioned that a certain sum of $2,000.00 was waiting for the man who first sighted the animal, be he cabin boy or sailor, mate or officer. I’ll let the reader decide whether eyes got proper exercise aboard the Abraham Lincoln.

As for me, I didn’t lag behind the others and I yielded to no one my share in these daily observations. Our frigate would have had fivescore good reasons for renaming itself the Argus, after that mythological beast with 100 eyes! The lone rebel among us was Conseil, who seemed utterly uninterested in the question exciting us and was out of step with the general enthusiasm on board.

As I said, Commander Farragut had carefully equipped his ship with all the gear needed to fish for a gigantic cetacean. No whaling vessel could have been better armed. We had every known mechanism, from the hand-hurled harpoon, to the blunderbuss firing barbed arrows, to the duck gun with exploding bullets. On the forecastle was mounted the latest model breech-loading cannon, very heavy of barrel and narrow of bore, a weapon that would figure in the Universal Exhibition of 1867. Made in America, this valuable instrument could fire a four-kilogram conical projectile an average distance of sixteen kilometers without the least bother.

So the Abraham Lincoln wasn’t lacking in means of destruction. But it had better still. It had Ned Land, the King of Harpooners.

Gifted with uncommon manual ability, Ned Land was a Canadian who had no equal in his dangerous trade. Dexterity, coolness, bravery, and cunning were virtues he possessed to a high degree, and it took a truly crafty baleen whale or an exceptionally astute sperm whale to elude the thrusts of his harpoon.

Ned Land was about forty years old. A man of great height–over six English feet–he was powerfully built, serious in manner, not very sociable, sometimes headstrong, and quite ill-tempered when crossed. His looks caught the attention, and above all the strength of his gaze, which gave a unique emphasis to his facial appearance.

Commander Farragut, to my thinking, had made a wise move in hiring on this man. With his eye and his throwing arm, he was worth the whole crew all by himself. I can do no better than to compare him with a powerful telescope that could double as a cannon always ready to fire.

To say Canadian is to say French, and as unsociable as Ned Land was, I must admit he took a definite liking to me. No doubt it was my nationality that attracted him. It was an opportunity for him to speak, and for me to hear, that old Rabelaisian dialect still used in some Canadian provinces. The harpooner’s family originated in Quebec, and they were already a line of bold fishermen back in the days when this town still belonged to France.

Little by little Ned developed a taste for chatting, and I loved hearing the tales of his adventures in the polar seas. He described his fishing trips and his battles with great natural lyricism. His tales took on the form of an epic poem, and I felt I was hearing some Canadian Homer reciting his Iliad of the High Arctic regions.

I’m writing of this bold companion as I currently know him. Because we’ve become old friends, united in that permanent comradeship born and cemented during only the most frightful crises! Ah, my gallant Ned! I ask only to live 100 years more, the longer to remember you!

And now, what were Ned Land’s views on this question of a marine monster? I must admit that he flatly didn’t believe in the unicorn, and alone on board, he didn’t share the general conviction. He avoided even dealing with the subject, for which one day I felt compelled to take him to task.

During the magnificent evening of June 25–in other words, three weeks after our departure–the frigate lay abreast of Cabo Blanco, thirty miles to leeward of the coast of Patagonia. We had crossed the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Strait of Magellan opened less than 700 miles to the south. Before eight days were out, the Abraham Lincoln would plow the waves of the Pacific.

Seated on the afterdeck, Ned Land and I chatted about one thing and another, staring at that mysterious sea whose depths to this day are beyond the reach of human eyes. Quite naturally, I led our conversation around to the giant unicorn, and I weighed our expedition’s various chances for success or failure. Then, seeing that Ned just let me talk without saying much himself, I pressed him more closely.

“Ned,” I asked him, “how can you still doubt the reality of this cetacean we’re after? Do you have any particular reasons for being so skeptical?”

The harpooner stared at me awhile before replying, slapped his broad forehead in one of his standard gestures, closed his eyes as if to collect himself, and finally said:

“Just maybe, Professor Aronnax.”

“But Ned, you’re a professional whaler, a man familiar with all the great marine mammals–your mind should easily accept this hypothesis of an enormous cetacean, and you ought to be the last one to doubt it under these circumstances!”

“That’s just where you’re mistaken, professor,” Ned replied. “The common man may still believe in fabulous comets crossing outer space, or in prehistoric monsters living at the earth’s core, but astronomers and geologists don’t swallow such fairy tales. It’s the same with whalers. I’ve chased plenty of cetaceans, I’ve harpooned a good number, I’ve killed several. But no matter how powerful and well armed they were, neither their tails or their tusks could puncture the sheet-iron plates of a steamer.”

“Even so, Ned, people mention vessels that narwhale tusks have run clean through.”

“Wooden ships maybe,” the Canadian replied. “But I’ve never seen the like. So till I have proof to the contrary, I’ll deny that baleen whales, sperm whales, or unicorns can do any such thing.”

“Listen to me, Ned–”

“No, no, professor. I’ll go along with anything you want except that. Some gigantic devilfish maybe . . . ?”

“Even less likely, Ned. The devilfish is merely a mollusk, and even this name hints at its semiliquid flesh, because it’s Latin meaning soft one. The devilfish doesn’t belong to the vertebrate branch, and even if it were 500 feet long, it would still be utterly harmless to ships like the Scotia or the Abraham Lincoln. Cons

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glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light

HF–high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range

Inmarsat-International Mobile Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial and distress and safety applications, at sea, in the air, and on land

Intelsat–International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC)

Intersputnik–International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia

landline–communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground

Marecs–Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency

Marisat–satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system

Medarabtel–the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen (initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network)

NMT–Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Orbita–a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet–switched digital telephone network

radiotelephone communications–the two–way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets

satellite communication system–a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provides long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system

satellite earth station–a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites

satellite link–a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one–way (down link from satellite to earth station–television receive–only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels)

SHF–super–high–frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range

SHF–super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range

Solidaridad-geosynchronous satellites in Mexico’s system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere

Statsionar–Russia’s geostationary system for satellite telecommunications

submarine cable–a cable designed for service under water

TAT–Trans–Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high–capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America

telefax–facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network

telegraph–a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission

telex–a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges

tropospheric scatter–a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances

trunk network–a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines

UHF–ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range

VHF–very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range

Telephones: This entry gives the total number of subscribers.

Television broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television sets.

Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. “Country name” and “National capital”, for example are used collectively to include nations, dependent areas, uninhabited islands, areas of special sovereignty, etc. The term “Military” is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense activities.

Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit the capacity of the families to educate their children.

Transnational Issues: This category includes only two entries at the present time. Disputes–international and Illicit drugs–deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing with the movement of people or material.

Transportation–note: This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

United Nations System: This information is presented in Appendix B: United Nations System which is a chart, table, or text (depending on the version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in detail.

Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual names of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and measures: This information is presented in Appendix E: Weights and Measures which includes mathematical notations (mathematical powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December. FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The [2]Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the successor nations to the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever the Factbook is available.


1. 2.




Current issues Historical perspective


Location Geographic coordinates Map references Area total land water Area–comparative Land boundaries total border countries Coastline Maritime claims contiguous zone continental shelf exclusive economic zone exclusive fishing zone extended fishing zone other territorial sea Climate Terrain Elevation extremes lowest point highest point Natural resources Land use arable land permanent crops permanent pastures forests and woodland other Irrigated land Natural hazards Environment–current issues Environment–international agreements party to signed, but not ratified Geography–note


Population Age structure 0-14 years 15-64 years 65 years and over Population growth rate Birth rate Death rate Net migration rate Sex ratio at birthunder 15 years 15-64 years 65 years and over total population Infant mortality rate Life expectancy at birth total population male female Total fertility rate Nationality noun adjective Ethnic groups Religions Languages Literacy definition total population male female Government

Country name conventional long form conventional short form local long form local short form former Data code Dependency status Government type National capital Administrative divisions Dependent areas Independence National holiday Constitution Legal system Suffrage Executive branch chief of state head of government cabinet elections election results Legislative branch elections election results Judicial branch Political parties and leaders Political pressure groups and leaders International organization participation Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission chancery telephone FAX consulate(s) general consulate(s) honorary consulate(s) honorary consulate(s) general Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission embassy branch office mailing address telephone FAX consulate(s) general consulate(s) Flag description Government–note


Economy–overview GDP GDP–real growth GDP–per capita GDP–composition by sector agriculture industry services Inflation rate–consumer price index Labor force total by occupation Unemployment rate Budget revenues expenditures Industries Industrial production growth rate Electricity–capacity Electricity–production Electricity–consumption per capita Agriculture–products Exports total value commodities partners Imports total value commodities partners Debt–external Economic aid donor recipient Currency Exchange rates Fiscal year


Telephones Telephone system domestic international Radio broadcast stations Radios Television broadcast stations Televisions Communications–note


Railways total broad gauge dual gauge narrow gauge other gauges standard gauge Highways total paved unpaved Waterways Pipelines Ports and harbors Merchant marine total ships by type Airports Airports–with paved runways total over 3,047m 2,438 to 3,047m 1,524 to 2,437m 914 to 1,523m under 914m Airports–with unpaved runways total over 3,047m 2,438 to 3,047m 1,524 to 2,437m 914 to 1,523m under 914m Heliports Transportation–note


Military branches Military manpower–military age Military manpower–availability males age 15-49 females age 15-49 Military manpower–fit for military service males females Military manpower–reaching military age annually males females Military expenditures–dollar figure Military expenditures–percent of GDP Military–note

Transnational Issues

Disputes–international Illicit drugs




Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 647,500 sq km land: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area – comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops : 0% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 3% other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

Environment – current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment – international agreements: party to : Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography – note: landlocked


Population: 23,738,085 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 5,201,585; female 5,003,503) 15-64 years: 54% (male 6,680,687; female 6,208,463) 65 years and over : 3% (male 341,301; female 302,546) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.48% (1997 est.) note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 42.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.78 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 146.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population : 46.34 years male: 46.89 years female: 45.76 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.07 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi’a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31.5% male : 47.2% female: 15% (1995 est.)


Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form : Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

National capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular – velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note : there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions tacitly agree they will follow Islamic law (Shari’a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning government at this time, and the country remains divided among fighting factions note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stonghold in the ethnically diverse north – General DOSTAM’s National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are local Shari’a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR; Supreme Defense Council of Afghanistan [comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar, Pakistan-based groups such as the Coo

material educativo para niños

ed by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

*Honduras, Economy

Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy, accounts for more than 25% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and produces two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Industry, still in its early stages, employs nearly 9% of the labor force, accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service sectors, including public administration, account for 50% of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic problems facing the economy include rapid population growth, high unemployment, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient public sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. A far-reaching reform program initiated by President CALLEJAS in 1990 is beginning to take hold. National product: GDP – exchange rate conversion – $5.5 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: 3.6% (1992 est.) National product per capita: $1,090 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1992 est.) Unemployment rate: 15% (30-40% underemployed) (1989) Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.) Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, meat, lumber partners: US 65%, Germany 9%, Japan 8%, Belgium 7% Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f. 1991) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs partners: US 45%, Japan 9%, Netherlands 7%, Mexico 7%, Venezuela 6% External debt: $2.8 billion (1990) Industrial production: growth rate 0.8% (1990 est.); accounts for 15% of GDP Electricity: 575,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 390 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles, clothing, wood products Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for more than 25% of GDP, more than 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp; importer of wheat Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; transshipment point for cocaine Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.1 billion

*Honduras, Economy

Currency: 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1 – 5.4 (fixed rate); 5.70 parallel black-market rate (November 1990); the lempira was allowed to float in 1992; current rate about US$1 – 5.65 Fiscal year: calendar year

*Honduras, Communications

Railroads: 785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter gauge Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved, 2,250 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft Ports: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo Merchant marine: 252 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 819,100 GRT/1,195,276 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 162 cargo, 20 refrigerated cargo, 10 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 22 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 22 bulk, 3 passenger, 2 short-sea passenger; note – a flag of convenience registry; Russia owns 10 ships under the Honduran flag Airports: total: 165 usable: 137 with permanent-surface runways: 11 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 14 Telecommunications: inadequate system with only 7 telephones per 1,000 persons; international services provided by 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earch stations and the Central American microwave radio relay system; broadcast stations – 176 AM, no FM, 7 SW, 28 TV

*Honduras, Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public Security Forces (FUSEP) Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,185,072; fit for military service 706,291; reach military age (18) annually 58,583 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion – $45 million, about 1% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Hong Kong, Header

Affiliation: (dependent territory of the UK)

*Hong Kong, Geography

Location: East Asia, on the southeast coast of China bordering the South China Sea Map references: Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 1,040 km2 land area: 990 km2 comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: total 30 km, China 30 km Coastline: 733 km Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm territorial sea: 3 nm International disputes: none Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 1% forest and woodland: 12% other: 79% Irrigated land: 20 km2 (1989) Environment: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

*Hong Kong, People

Population: 5,552,965 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: -0.06% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 12.27 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -7.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.99 years male: 76.55 years female: 83.64 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Chinese adjective: Chinese Ethnic divisions: Chinese 98%, other 2% Religions: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10% Languages: Chinese (Cantonese), English Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1971) total population: 77% male: 90% female: 64% Labor force: 2.8 million (1990) by occupation: manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%, financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport and communications 4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

*Hong Kong, Government

Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Hong Kong Abbreviation: HK Digraph: HK Type: dependent territory of the UK scheduled to revert to China in 1997 Capital: Victoria Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK) Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK; the UK signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong’s existing social and economic systems and lifestyle) Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997 Legal system: based on English common law National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945) Political parties and leaders: United Democrats of Hong Kong, Martin LEE, chairman; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Democratic Foundation Other political or pressure groups: Cooperative Resources Center, Allen LEE, chairman; Meeting Point, Anthony CHEUNG, chairman; Association of Democracy and People’s Livelihood, Frederick FUNG Kin Kee, chairman; Liberal Democratic Federation, HEUNG Yee Kuk; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China); Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Chinese Manufacturers’ Association of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Professional Teachers’ Union; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China Suffrage: direct election 21 years of age; universal as a permanent resident living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years indirect election limited to about 100,000 professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies Elections: Legislative Council: indirect elections last held 12 September 1991 and direct elections were held for the first time 15 September 1991 (next to be held in September 1995 when the number of directly-elected seats increases to 20); results – percent of vote by party NA; seats – (60 total; 21 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected, 18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members); indirect elections – number of seats by functional constituency NA; direct elections – UDHK 12, Meeting Point 3, ADPL 1, other 2 Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the Executive Council Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

*Hong Kong, Government

Judicial branch: Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) Head of Government: Governor Chris PATTEN (since NA July 1992); Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987) Member of: APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU, IMO (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO Diplomatic representation in US: as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS embassy: Consulate General at 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong mailing address: Box 30, Hong Kong, or FPO AP 96522-0002 telephone: [852] 239-011 Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

*Hong Kong, Economy

Overview: Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy with few tariffs or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of GDP, employs 28% of the labor force, and exports about 90% of its output. Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, slowed to 3.0% in 1989-90, and picked up to 4.2% in 1991 and 5.9% in 1992. Unemployment, which has been declining since the mid-1980s, is now about 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain bright so long as major trading partners continue to be reasonably prosperous. National product: GDP – exchange rate conversion – $86 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: 5.9% (1992) National product per capita: $14,600 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (1992) Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.) Budget: revenues $17.4 billion; expenditures $14.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92) Exports: $118 billion, including reexports of $85.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: clothing, textiles, yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys partners: US 29%, China 21%, Germany 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5% (1990) Imports: $120 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.) commodities: foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum partners: China 37%, Japan 16%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1990) External debt: $9.5 billion (December 1990 est.) Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 9,566,000 kW capacity; 29,400 million kWh produced, 4,980 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products; less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade; transshipment and major financial and money-laundering center Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $923 million Currency: 1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

*Hong Kong, Economy

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$ – 7.800 (1992), 7.771 (1991), 7.790 (1990), 7.800 (1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987); note – linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985 Fiscal year: 1 April – 31 March

*Hong Kong, Communications

Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned Highways: 1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth Ports: Hong Kong Merchant marine: 176 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 5,870,007 GRT/10,006,390 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 20 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 29 container, 15 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 6 combination ore/oil, 5 liquefied gas, 88 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note – a flag of convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag, and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere Airports: total: 2 useable: 2 with permanent-surface runways: 2 with runways over 3,659 m: 0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 0 Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services; 3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and extensive optical fiber transmission network; broadcast stations – 6 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) repeater station and 1 British Forces Broadcasting Service repeater station; 2,500,000 radio receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth stations – 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

*Hong Kong, Defense Forces

Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police Force Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,635,516; fit for military service 1,256,057; reach military age (18) annually 43,128 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion – $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.); this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself, the remainder being paid by the UK Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Howland Island, Header

Affiliation: (territory of the US)

*Howland Island, Geography

Location: in the North Pacific Ocean, 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia Map references: Oceania Area: total area: 1.6 km2 land area: 1.6 km2 comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 6.4 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 m or the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm International disputes: none Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s) Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 5% other: 95% Irrigated land: 0 km2 Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

*Howland Island, People

Population: uninhabited; note – American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

*Howland Island, Government

Names: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Howland Island Digraph: HQ Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

*Howland Island, Economy

Overview: no economic activity

*Howland Island, Communications

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan – they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

*Howland Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard

*Hungary, Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, between Slovakia and Romania Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe Area: total area: 93,030 km2 land area: 92,340 km2 comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana Land boundaries: total 1,952 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 292 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km, Ukraine 103 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and awarded to the former Yugoslavia by treaty of Trianon in 1920 Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils Land use: arable land: 50.7% permanent crops: 6.1% meadows and pastures: 12.6% forest and woodland: 18.3% other: 12.3% Irrigated land: 1,750 km2 (1989) Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

*Hungary, People

Population: 10,324,018 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: -0.07% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 12.