material didactico para español

petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 6% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 18% forests and woodland: 56% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Environment – current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment – international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography – note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,920,092 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.23% (male 2,379,541; female 2,301,543) 15-64 years: 59.4% (male 3,794,515; female 3,880,367) 65 years and over: 4.37% (male 262,701; female 301,425) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.51 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.06 years male: 68.26 years female: 73.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s) adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.1% male: 92% female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador conventional short form: Ecuador local long form: Republica del Ecuador local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular – provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000) following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000) following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31 May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: results of the last election prior to the coup were: Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote – 51% note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January; Congress then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the remainder of MAHAUD’s term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly elected by province – two per province – for four-year terms) elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note – defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP ; Democratic Left or ID ; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE ; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP ; Popular Democracy or DP ; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Jaime HURTADO Gonzalez]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA ; Roldosist Party or PRE ; Social Christian Party or PSC note: political blocs include: far left – MPD; populist – CFP and P-NP; populist left – PRE; center left – ID, DP, and FRA; center right – PSC and PCE

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: (202) 234-7200 FAX: (202) 667-3482 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gwen CLARE embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito mailing address: APO AA 34039 telephone: (2) 562-890 FAX: (2) 502-052 consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

Economy – overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been uneven due to ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador’s economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which eventually forced a desperate government to dollarize the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the government. The new president, Gustavo NOBOA has yet to complete negotiations for a long sought IMF accord. He will find it difficult to push through the reforms necessary to make dollarization work in the long-run.

GDP: purchasing power parity – $54.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP – real growth rate: -8% (1999 est.)

GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $4,300 (1999 est.)

GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 14% industry: 36% services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 37.6% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 59.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November 1998 est.)

Budget: revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential privatizations) expenditures: $5.1 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity – production: 9.657 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 27.96% hydro: 72.04% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity – consumption: 8.981 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture – products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports – commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut flowers, fish

Exports – partners: US 39%, Colombia 7%, Italy 6%, Peru 5%, Chile 3% (1998)

Imports: $2.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, fuels; consumer goods

Imports – partners: US 39%, Colombia 11%, Japan 9%, Venezuela 5%, Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt – external: $15.3 billion (1999)

Economic aid – recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 – 24,860.7 (January 2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Communications

Telephones – main lines in use: 748,000 (1995)

Telephones – mobile cellular: 49,776 (1995)

Telephone system: domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable international: satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 27, shortwave 29 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 1.55 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways: total: 812 km (single track) narrow gauge: 812 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways: total: 43,197 km paved: 8,165 km unpaved: 35,032 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,151 GRT/388,750 DWT ships by type: chemical tanker 2, liquified gas 1, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 22 (1999 est.)

Airports: 182 (1999 est.)

Airports – with paved runways: total: 57 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 13 under 914 m: 20 (1999 est.)

Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 125 914 to 1,523 m: 36 under 914 m: 89 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Ecuador:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower – military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower – availability: males age 15-49: 3,296,678 (2000 est.)

Military manpower – fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,224,033 (2000 est.)

Military manpower – reaching military age annually: males: 130,869 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures – dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)

@Ecuador:Transnational Issues

Disputes – international: demarcation of the agreed-upon border with Peru was completed in May 1999

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine and derivatives of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub; increased activity on frontiers by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

______________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Introduction

Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world) will continue to stress Egyptian society and overtax resources as the country enters the new millennium.

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km

Area – comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: total: 2,689 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment – current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

Environment – international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography – note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 68,359,979 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 12,260,343; female 11,701,253) 15-64 years: 61% (male 21,111,615; female 20,714,511) 65 years and over: 4% (male 1,131,760; female 1,440,497) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.38 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.33 years male: 61.29 years female: 65.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 51.4% male: 63.6% female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah local short form: Misr former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma’iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id, Dumyat, Janub Sina’, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’, Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president nominated by the People’s Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005)